What does «Anathematized» mean?
Many people think that this is a terrible curse that a father can impose on the head of an unfaithful sinner. Others — that this is an old, forgotten church ritual … Let us see what this means, and only in past centuries did public denial of the church practice?
What it is?
Translated from the Greek, this word means «laying on» or «weaning.» In ancient times, they designated the dedication of a deity, a sacrifice to the gods by a vow.
A little later (specifically, at the beginning of the 4th century AD), it assumed a diametrically opposite meaning — the separation of man from the church community. The term entered into wide use even later — in the 5th century.
Nowadays, the church anathema means that a person is excommunicated from attending church, communicating with the faithful. He will not be baptized, buried, buried on the church (consecrated) land.
One should not confuse it with a penance, during which a Christian cannot go to church either — penance is a temporary renunciation, and anathema is eternal (with rare exceptions).
Can it be considered a church curse? The priests themselves assure that they are not.
This is a punishment designed to show the person the seriousness of his misconduct.
It is curious that not only an individual can “deserve honor” to fall under such disfavor of the church. Anathemas indulged in nihilism, naturalism, socialism, communism. And in the 15th century, the Pope anathematized the whole city — Czech Zatec.
Reason: maintaining Jan Hus and the Hussite movement.
Is it possible to remove anathema from a person: the opinion of the Orthodox Church
Yes! If an anathematized person sincerely repents of his sins, the body that excommunicates him can revoke his decision. Vivid examples of this happened in world history (you can read more about them below).
So anathema is not a final and irrevocable sentence. Although of course, this is a very, very serious decision of the church.
What rulers «bothered the honor» to be committed to anathema?
- King of Germany Henry the Fourth (1050-1106 years). This crowned ruler wanted to appoint bishops himself, which the Vatican didn’t like very much, and the pope excommunicated the obstinate king from the church. At that time it was a very strong punishment that could have cost Henry the throne. He had to go for the forgiveness of sins (on foot!), Wait a few days for an audience … The anathema was removed.
- Frederick II Hohenstaufen (1194-1250). This ruler stretched out his hands to the lands belonging to the Vatican. The ruler was anathematized several times, also called the Antichrist. At first, he did not react to this at all, but under the pressure of the religious grandees, he decided to make the Vatican pleasant — he led the 4th Crusade, wishing to occupy Jerusalem. And he did it, and in a completely peaceful way — through negotiations. True, it did not save him from anathema.
- English King Henry the Eighth (1491-1547 years). He turned out to be very loving, having married 6 times. His first divorce did not please the holy fathers so much that the Pope excommunicated him. The king responded rather harshly, banning Catholicism in England. His compatriots of the Catholic religion, who did not like the decision of the king, were persecuted. True, politically, the country has become more independent, because it has its own church.
- Zaporozhye hetman Ivan Mazepa (1639-1709) He led his Cossacks against Peter the Great, concluding an alliance with the Swedish king. This action was not anti-religious, but worldly, political, but the Russian Church, subordinate to Peter, proclaimed the hetman a renegade and anathema, and with great fanfare and curses.
- Revolutionary, Cuban Fidel Castro (1926-2016). The Vatican fought against communism, and Fidel also fell under their “hand”. However, in Cuba, most revolutionaries were genuine Catholics. They did not burn churches, did not shoot the priests, Castro even met with the pontiff. In general, most likely, this anathema did not last long.
And not rulers, but also famous people
- There is an opinion that we were excommunicated Dmitry Donskoy, hero of the Kulikovo battle. Historians even argue that before the battle, Sergius of Radonezh, who supported Cyprian, did not bless him (he also betrayed the future hero to the anathema of the well-known battle). It is interesting that in our day Dmitry is canonized.
- Gregory Otrepiev, later called False Dmitry the First. The fluent monk, who called himself the son of Ivan the Terrible, who became king, and later killed. Expelled from the church in 1604, during his lifetime.
- Stepan Razin (1671 year). This Don Cossack and chieftain fell into disgrace of the church due to the fact that he raised a riot against the current government, and the Cossacks behaved rather cruelly.
- Yemelyan Pugachev (anathema — 1775, removed before the execution of the rebel in the same year).
- Lev Tolstoy. Yes, yes, the same writer. One of his novels, “The Resurrection,” was especially disliked by the clergyman because of the criticism of morals that reign in modern author churches. Excommunication took place in 1901, it was proclaimed by the Holy Synod. True, there were no proclamations in Russian churches.
- Andrey Markov, mathematician, who studied the theory of numbers, probability and mathematical analysis. Excommunication occurred in 1912. Reason: the scientist ardently stood up for Leo Tolstoy, protesting against the excommunication of the writer.
As for the Catholics, they betrayed anathema Jeanne Dark (warrior), Martin Luther (theologian, Protestant), Giordano Bruno (philosopher), Jan Hus (preacher). True, since 1983, Catholics no longer use this term.
And to whom did the ROC confront these days?
- Evgraf Duluman, the main atheist of the country, who won over many believers and even some priests to his side. He was excommunicated in 1959. By the way, these very atheists were anathematized for company with Evgraf.
- Vladimir Lenin (he was anathema in 1970). Reason: persecution of the church. The Cathedral of the Russian Orthodox Church announced its decision while abroad.
- Supporters of ecumenism, wishing to unite all churches into one. Excommunication occurred in 1983.
- Kyiv Patriarch Filaret, The head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (in the world, Mikhail Denisenko), is anathematized by the Russian Orthodox Church in 1997, and also ejected from the dignity. However, he remained in the UOC, saying that the anathema was made for political reasons.
- Gleb Yakunin, dissident, Protopresbyter Apostolic Orthodox Church. Anathema betrayed in the same 1997. Even earlier, in 1993, he was defrocked, as he took part in the elections (and this did not become a clergyman). But this church punishment did not prevent Gleb from becoming a deputy.
- Oleg Dementiev, journalist, atheist. “Got honored by honor” in 2009, for critical articles about the convent.
But what exactly is the “procedure” of anathema? This will vividly show a short video taken in a church:
Guess today with the help of the tarot spread "Day map"!
For proper divination: focus on the subconscious and do not think about anything at least 1-2 minutes.