Who is the monk the monk and how is he different from the monk
What is the difference between a priest and a monk, and who is a schimnite? My friend’s son decided to devote his life to Christ and went to a monastery. The woman was very worried about her separation from her only son, and I decided to find out more about ordination as a monk.
The shimnik is the last and highest degree of initiation and renunciation of the world, but at first the neophyte just lives at the monastery and is a novice. Why do Orthodox Christians become monks, which causes them to renounce the world?
I will tell you about it in the article.
The history of monasticism
In ancient times, the monks were called hermits or hermits, as they lived first in the desert. In the 5th century, the hermitage was replaced by a shutter, and the monks began to live in monasteries.
But over time, the shutter has ceased to be an indispensable condition of schimism. It was possible to distinguish the hermetic by clothes, therefore the name «schema» referred specifically to clothing.
Subsequently, vows were added to clothing and an ascetic lifestyle.
Nowadays, the great-eagle can be distinguished by a special pointed cap, which is called the cockle.
The first monks appeared in Syria and Egypt in the IV and III centuries of our era. The purpose of monasticism was the attainment of salvation through life in Christ. The first Christians literally understood the commandments of Christ and the apostles’ parting words, therefore they completely renounced worldly fuss.
According to the first Christians, the world is filled with evil, and the source of evil is a mortal body. It is the body that lends itself to numerous temptations that can be overcome by fasting and prayer.
The monk took vows:
- noncommissioning (poverty);
- chastity (celibacy);
- obedience (giving up one’s own will).
Vow of non-possession implies a complete abandonment of any property. The monk does not even own a pen, he has nothing.
This is a voluntary rejection of all the things of the world, because they become unnecessary. This is the loss of all interest in earthly things because of their uselessness.
The monk uses things only when absolutely necessary.
Vow of celibacy not only implies the rejection of living together with her spouse, but the denial of sex in general. That is, only a soul matters to a person, but it does not have sex.
Vow of obedience means that a person no longer has his own desires. There remains only one desire — to constantly be with the Lord.
In monastic life, the vow is realized in unquestioning obedience to the abbot. However, unquestioning obedience involves not uncomplaining obedience against one’s own will, but joyful service.
The first monks went to the caves or deserted places to live away from worldly temptations. Over time, they began to form monastic communities — monasteries.
They accepted new members of the community and conducted them through trials to test the firmness of the intention of living in Christ. Tests suggested complete obedience and renunciation of one’s own will.
Monasticism in Russia
In Russia, the monks were called monks. This is a Russian name derived from the word «other.»
Also monks and nuns were called chernets and blackberries (because of the black color of their clothes). Why did people in Russia voluntarily go to the monks and renounce the world?
Because he lost his appeal and sense to them. The first monks were hermits and hermits, they voluntarily left people in their “paradise”.
For them, the cave was a paradise of taverns filled with grace and special meaning.
If a person feels within himself a special closeness to God, he decides to go to a monastery to serve. Monasticism has three degrees of dedication:
When shears monastic vows in monks, they do not pronounce it, this is the degree of a novice in a monastery. The monk prepares to take the veil in hermitages, he studies the word of God and masters the basics of monasticism. The novice receives the right to wear a cassock, which symbolizes repentance and crying, as well as renunciation of worldly vanity..
Literally from the Greek the word «robe» is translated as «decrepit, worn.» However, a ryasofor may not receive a new name.
One of the first known monks in Russia was Anthony of Pechersk, who founded the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery.
The minor schema involves receiving a new spiritual name, the monk takes a vow of poverty (non-possession), virginity and obedience. Maloskhimnika can be distinguished from a rasophore by the presence of a special cape without sleeves (mantle), which is worn over the robe.
From the moment of vowing in the minor schema, the monk takes a vow of severe asceticism.
A new patron saint appears to the monk of the monk, much more of them than that of a simple believer or a ryasofor.
The great schema is the highest degree of monastic initiation, which not every monk can achieve. The great schema implies total alienation from worldly life for the sake of union with Christ. The great schema is called the Great Angelic Image.
The monk pronounces the same vows, but is obliged to fulfill them in a more severe form. Also, when the Great Schim give a new spiritual name.
Rev. Neal of Myrothew about monasticism:
Why is the schema called angelic? Because those who cut their hair acquire the likeness of angels, since they completely renounce the world (as it were, die for it).
They chose to become like angels, to completely lose contact with the world of people for the sake of communication with God.
The grace of the schema is called by the holy fathers the second baptism.
Why does shemmonah get a new name? Because he dies for the earthly world and is born for the new — the higher.
The new monk hears the name for the first time at his tonsure, it is given by the spiritual master. Having received a new name, the monk is aware of himself as a completely different person.
What is the difference between the obedience of the princes and the obedience of the ryasophores? They have only one obedience left — spiritualism and the administration of the liturgy. In a word, the great masters do nothing but prayer service.
Rasofor performs various works in the monastery on a par with workers (workers living in the monastery). He passes a kind of temptation — the test of endurance.
After the artwork is completed successfully, initiations begin. First, a person is trimmed into a monk, then into a schema. These initiations differ in the number of vows given and the characteristics of ascetic behavior.
Skimnics completely leave all earthly affairs and cares to devote themselves to prayer. Prayer in Christianity is the highest virtue, as it allows you to unite in spirit with the Lord.
Schimonah and schema-monk try to be like in everything in their lives the image of the God-man — Jesus Christ. This is the most important and significant in their lives.
Everything else fades away from the light of the Lord and his grace.
However, the period of obedience can take many years, and a person can die a novice. Why it happens? Because monasticism is not a person’s choice, but vocation.
If the abbot of the monastery does not see the vocation of a person, the tonsure will not take place. A person may be completely sure of his election, but after a few years he may doubt it.
Therefore, the responsibility for the tonsure falls on the abbot, who must determine the truth of intentions and the choice of the path of a novice.
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