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Otitis — causes and symptoms of the onset of the disease, diagnosis and treatment

What is otitis media, signs of the onset of the disease, and methods of treatment in children and adults

Otitis is an ENT disease, which is most often formed in the auricle of an adult or child and has a lot of varieties. In this article, we will try to highlight the disease in as much detail as possible, indicate the causes, characteristics and symptoms of its occurrence in adults and children, describe effective folk and traditional otitis media treatment at home, and also give some recommendations what preventive measures should be taken to avoid illness

What a person with an otitis looks like can be seen in the photo. At the beginning of the described acute inflammatory disease, the outer, middle, and then the inner part of the ear suffers. The most common disease that both adults and children suffer from is considered otitis media in the middle ear part.

Very often, the disease affects babies from infancy up to a year, as well as older children (2, 3, 4, 5 and more years). 80% of young patients under the age of 3 years, described by the disease suffer at least once. It is very important to provide first aid to the sick person in time and take emergency measures to eliminate the illness in order not to get complications after an ENT disease, which in some episodes can lead to deafness.

According to statistics, about 30% of the available otolaryngological diseases account for otitis in acute form in the middle ear cavity. Children of primary school age affects the disease much more than adults. Upon reaching 3 years of age, approximately 80% of babies suffer from otitis.

In a person with an ENT disease, the auricle is first affected, which causes severe pain. During the course of the disease in humans, the tissues that make up the auditory organ become inflamed. From year to year otitis causes a huge number of people of different ages. For this reason, this ailment is not considered harmless, and to eliminate it, you should respond quickly.

For a clear understanding of the causes of otitis, one should have an idea of ​​how the human ear works (see photo). A very complex structure is hidden inside an important auditory organ. It converts sound waves into a convenient form for the auditory receptor. Then the signal enters the brain. In addition, human ears play another role. In normal auditory function, the ears perform vestibular functions and help a person to maintain balance.

There are 3 important auric departments that have an ICD — 10 code, namely:

  1. Outer. In this part of the hearing organs are the auricles along with the auditory canals, and then the eardrums are contained. Behind them air drum cavities are formed, inside of which there are 3 auditory bones.
  2. Average. Its purpose is the transmission and amplification of various sound vibrations. Next, the sound waves are moving towards a special area (labyrinths) located in the area of ​​the temples.
  3. Interior. In this part there is the so-called Corti organ, in which nerve receptors accumulate, which convert sound vibrations into various electrical signals.

In addition, an equally important auditory organ, called the Eustachian tube, can be distinguished, which can be penetrated from the back of the tonsils of the sky leading to the drum section. This organ ventilates the drum membrane and normalizes the pressure in this area. Often, the aforementioned auditory tube is usually referred to the middle ear cavity.

As mentioned above, with otitis media, all 3 hearing departments are affected. For this reason, it is easy to guess how to call this or that type of disease. If the external ear department suffers, then this ailment is considered otitis external, in case of a disease of the middle part of the auditory organ, the middle one, and at the internal, respectively, internal.

Types of otitis can be divided into 3 main groups, with many subspecies, the occurrence of which depends on various factors (infectious, mechanical or other reasons). Otitis media is divided viral, bacterial and traumatic. In addition, there are many other classifications of this disease, which we will discuss in this section in more detail.

In addition to the above-mentioned diseases, there is also allergic otitis, adhesive, accompanied by tinnitus and hearing loss (hearing loss), bacterial, bullous, viral, secretory, acute purulent, hemorrhagic, post-traumatic, fungal, toubimpanal, verrucous, infectious, perforative, anthra catarrhal, diffuse, malassezionny, exudative and other types. In addition, there are cases of purulent and suppurative (secretory) otitis, as well as acute and chronic inflammation of the ear.

Each of the three main aforementioned ear areas is at risk and therefore may well become inflamed. Often, the disease can manifest itself only from one side (unilateral otitis), but in some episodes there are also bilateral inflammations. The latter occur due to the inflamed nasal cavity, pharynx or larynx.

Let us dwell on each of the 3 varieties of ENT diseases in more detail.

  1. Outer. This disease occurs in a patient for several reasons. They can be injuries of the ear, hypothermia of the auditory organ at the time of walking without a headdress, as well as getting inside the ear of dirty water. The symptoms of the disease are: severe pain and congestion in the auditory organ, poor hearing, swelling and not very pleasant smell from the ears. In addition, the patient may develop a rash, acute purulent-necrotic inflammation of the hair follicles (boils), as well as minor abrasions. Often the causative agent of this disease is a fungus. For this reason, the patient may not even immediately feel that he is the carrier of this disease, since the disease is not accompanied by high fever. The patient’s skin may become itchy, causing minor pain (with dermatitis, candidiasis, furunculosis, or other skin diseases).
  2. Average. This disease is a very common disease throughout the world. Every year otitis media affects several hundred million people. From various sources it is known that 25% -60% of the population of the planet at least once suffered from this disease.
  3. Internal (see photo). At this stage of the disease (labyrinthitis), which has many subspecies, the disease is very dangerous. The main symptoms of the onset of the described form of the disease are partial hearing loss or deafness, dizziness and pain. For the treatment of otitis media, this type of antibiotics is needed exclusively, as folk remedies cannot cope with this ailment.

When the first symptoms of the labyrinth appear, urgent measures should be taken to eliminate the ear disease, since there is a huge risk of serious complications (hearing loss) due to the death of the vesicular nerve (neuritis). In addition, with otitis media, other exacerbations in the form of meningitis, encephalitis, focal accumulations of pus in the highest part of the CNS (abscess), leading to the most sad outcome, appear inside the ear..

There are many, or rather seven, causes for which the ENT disease occurs. In the context of this section, we will explain why the disease may develop, as well as what symptoms speak of its appearance.

There is an assumption that the described acute form of otitis media is formed due to cold air or impure water, which enter the organ of hearing. However, it is not. According to the section of medicine — etiology, these aspects do not relate to the formation of the disease.

What are the real causes of the disease:

  1. Bacteria. The disease is formed in the auditory organ due to the attack of various microorganisms (pneumococcal infections, hemophilic rods and others), which fall through the auditory tube into the other ENT organs for other ailments. In addition, bacteria enter the auditory organ due to simultaneous blowing out of snot through 2 nostrils.
  2. Complicated opening of the auditory tubes.
  3. Poor air ventilation in the Eustachian tube.
  4. Curved nasal septum.
  5. Diseases developing near the opening of the pipe.
  6. Trauma of the eardrum.
  7. Blood poisoning.

When the external form of otitis in the organ of hearing penetrates fungal or bacterial infections that cause the formation of boils and acne. Since the disease in the middle ear has many subspecies, there can be several reasons for its occurrence (being in a plane at a high altitude, diving under the water, and others). Otitis otitis occurs quite rarely. The latter develop as a result of complications after otitis in the middle cavity of the ear or in particularly advanced cases.

In case of catarrhal and acute otitis in the patient’s body, strong inflammatory processes begin, which diagnose the abscesses of the mucous in the average auditory organ. With purulent otitis, a bacterial infection can occur, which very often enters the auditory organ and blocks the bone and cartilage canal of the external ear. For example, an illness can occur when diligent and frequent cleaning of the ears with a cotton pad. For this reason, ear hygiene should be carried out with particular care so as not to damage an important auditory organ.

You should also be aware that diseases in this organ can occur in patients with reduced immunity and a weakened body. Therefore, even at first glance, a harmless runny nose can serve as an impetus for the formation of a dangerous disease in the auditory organ. If time does not proceed to the treatment of otitis, then after a while the disease can turn into a more acute form or cause serious deterioration in health, accompanied by meningitis, purulent meningoencephalitis, or abscess of the brain.

To diagnose the presence of the disease in a timely manner, you need to know about the signs pointing to it, which will be discussed in this section. To identify a particular form of the disease, the patient needs a certain type of examination, which the doctor prescribes himself.

What are the methods of examination and special medical equipment to identify the various forms of otitis media:

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