Properties of the chemical element Nickel for health, as well as its application; the harm of an element and the consequences of poisoning it
Nickel — ductile metal of silver-white color, with a strong luster. It is easy to be physically affected and polished, but it shows little chemical activity and only under the influence of temperature is it oxidized.
The substance can be called «space», because The first samples hit humanity literally from the sky. In the old days, people melted this meteoric metal into weapons and talismans.
The origin of the name carries a seal of magic, ostensibly in the mines of Saxony wielded a malicious gnome “Old Nick”, which turned the copper ore into useless. The word «Nickel» expressed contempt for the mineral kupfernickel or «false copper.» Subsequently, it turned out that the miners found nickel deposits, which the ancient Chinese used to make luxury goods.
In the Old and New Worlds it was used for minting money, jewelry and decorating.
In its pure form, the element was discovered in 1751, which was not very happy, because at that time it was still a stable opinion that the number of metals should correspond to the number of planets in the solar system.
Metal is actively used in the military industry, mechanical engineering, they even make wire for submarine cables. It will be difficult even to list all areas of industry, science and technology, where its application is relevant. It is added even to the composition of cosmetics and household chemicals, and medicine uses its alloys for manufacturing implants.
Scientists believe that there are a lot of nickel on our planet, and its approximate content is about 3% of the entire crust.
The action of the macroelement on the human body is not done on the bottom, but the functions in which it takes part are important in themselves:
- participates in blood formation in a complex with copper, iron and cobalt;
- increases insulin productivity;
- participates in the formation and operation of carriers of DNA and RNA gene information proteins;
- is a supplier of oxygen in the cells of tissues;
- with his participation, activation of a number of enzymes occurs;
- improves kidney and pituitary function;
- promotes hormonal regulation;
- increases the growth of muscle tissue, but only in the presence of vitamin B12, otherwise the process will be reversed;
- lowers blood pressure.
All these processes can occur due to the fact that the element accumulates in the main organs of the human body: brain, kidneys, liver, lungs, muscles, skin, pancreas and thyroid glands. The largest number is in the pituitary gland and glands, those that are responsible for metabolic processes in the body. This is where the synthesis of basic vitamins, hormones and other nutrients.
Interestingly, with age, an increase in the concentration of an element in the lungs can occur.
From the body, the element is excreted mainly with feces and much less with perspiration and with bile.
The daily rate of the macro according to different data ranges from 60 to 300 μg. The bulk of our body is able to absorb from food, so the lack of substance — a rare phenomenon. In addition, the need strongly depends on the amount of iron intake — it increases in direct proportion, and vice versa. This is especially true for women during pregnancy.
Lack of macronutrient can have a negative effect with long-term intake in the body of less than 50 mg per day, which can cause negative effects in the form of dermatitis. According to clinical experiments, such processes as:
- impaired glucose and hemoglobin levels;
- changes in bone tissue, their growth and regeneration;
- metabolic disorders of calcium, iron and vitamin B12;
- changes in the structure of the cell and membrane.
The digestibility is significantly reduced by eating foods with ascorbic acid content, as well as by drinking coffee, tea, and milk. You should not use medicines yourself to increase nickel in the body, since The results can be disastrous. An element in food is absolutely non-toxic, which cannot be said about it in preparations. You should not risk in order to avoid possible mutational processes in cells and in order to avoid the formation of tumors.
Surplus macro is much more common than the shortage. The reasons are domestic and industrial factors that use water-soluble nickel chloride and sulfate.
It is also possible the accumulation of nickel dust in the body, which is typical for industrial processing of metals. In everyday life, an excess of the element can be obtained by using low-quality jewelry, dentures and dishes. True, in this case, the excess is still insignificant.
A toxic dose is considered to be more than 40 mg per day. Food is not able to cause such accumulation, besides the intestine is not able to absorb the entire consumed element. But people can themselves exacerbate the situation by intensive smoking, wearing low-quality products and prostheses.
Interestingly, high-quality nickel-plated dishes are absolutely safe and quite common, and 100 years ago only very rich people could use it, because even royals considered it luxurious and exotic.
Nickel poisonings cause negative effects:
- headache, nausea,
- acute inflammation of the skin;
- respiratory diseases, asthma;
- lack of coordination of movements;
- vitiligo, ulcers;
- reproductive impairment;
- malfunctions in the functioning of the cardiovascular system;
- problems with the digestive organs, dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract;
- diseases associated with dysfunction of the thyroid gland, and, accordingly, impaired activity of hormones and enzymes;
- dystrophic processes in the kidneys and liver.
Poisoning can be quite serious and even cause death in just an hour and a half. For example, carbonyl compounds of nickel belong to the first class of danger, which indicates their extreme harm to the human body.
However, there are other, quite dangerous diseases that can occur as a result of the toxic effects of nickel compounds — anemia, pulmonary and brain edema, tachycardia, and allergies. Perhaps even the development of tumors of the skin, kidneys and lungs. Against this background, a general overexcitement of the nervous system looks like a small nuisance. But nothing good will add. It is dangerous for women during pregnancy to work in specialized industries, since the fetus receives a full supply of nickel due to the full permeability of the placenta, and this in turn can lead to spontaneous abortions and developmental defects.
The most common negative effect of nickel on the body is an allergy, the fair sex is especially susceptible to it, due to wearing accessories and jewelry, often of dubious quality and production. It is expressed in the form of contact dermatitis — rash, redness, itching.
Foods containing nickel are very diverse and fully available. Finally, at least one element took pity and deigned to accumulate in large quantities in chocolate! Cocoa grains, nuts, tea, legumes, grains, cereals, buckwheat, onions, parsley, carrots, mushrooms, apricots, black currants are also rich in them. Pay attention to the origin of these products, because plants grown on lands “polluted” with nickel can be oversaturated with the element.
The element can also come from drinking water, especially a lot of it in the morning, due to the fact that during the night the water stagnates in the water supply and the concentration can increase.
Products of animal origin, though they cannot compete for leadership in nickel wealth — sea fish and other seafood, meat, liver, eggs, dairy products can also enrich our diet.
Take into account when making the menu the fact that vitamin C, tea, milk and coffee reduce the body’s ability to absorb the element. But the absence of calcium and magnesium have the opposite effect.
Indications for the appointment of a macrocell are mainly in the field of treatment of skin diseases since the 19th century. Today nickel-containing drugs successfully fight psoriasis. Nickel is also used as an auxiliary component for large blood losses to stimulate the synthesis of red blood cells in the form of subcutaneous injections.