Sunflower oil — features, benefits, culinary use, refined and unrefined sunflower oil
In Soviet culinary allowances, I remember, they wrote something like this: “A hostess should have two types of butter in her kitchen — refined and unrefined. The first is ideal for frying and baking, and the second is indispensable for salad dressing. ”
Today, the hostess, focused on healthy eating, has in her kitchen oil: sunflower, corn, olive, rapeseed, soybean, cottonseed, linseed … This hostess, of course, knows that vegetable oils are absolutely indispensable for a person’s diet — because contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, the energy itself, and are the main sources of vitamins E and F. Each oil has its own composition and its advantages, and experts recommend alternating — at least sunflower, olive, corn and soy.
But why do you think people who are well versed in gastronomy respond to the question of what kind of butter they prefer? “Salads are best from the market, unrefined, aroma-a-at-noe,” “Favorite — fragrant sunflower seeds to smell”, “I’ve been buying sunflower seeds from the same old woman on the Cheryomushkinsky market for many years”.
It would, of course, be quite bold to declare that sunflower oil is our invention.
But in a sense, in Russia it has passed its own way. Sunflower, a native of North America, wandered around the world for a long time under various names (“Indian Golden Flower”, “Grass of the Sun”, “Peruvian Chrysanthemum”), before Peter I brought it to Russia.
In Europe, at about the same time, they already learned how to make butter from it and began to grow it industrially, but so far we have only admired it and smelled sunflower seeds on the bench.
One fine day in 1829, the peasant Alekseevskaya settlement (the current city of Alekseyevka, Belgorod region) Dmitry Bokarev gathered in his garden a crop of seeds and a wooden beater “processed” these seeds so that they suddenly turned out to be butter.
Four years later, the first creamery was built in Alekseyevka, and a few years later the Russian oil producers boasted that they could pour the Black and Baltic seas with their oil.
Maybe because our ancestors ate fasting sunflower (aka lean) butter for the long fasting days — they even boiled jelly with it, we treat it differently, and this makes us turn off the way to the supermarket and look on the Cheryomushki market.
The sunflower is beautiful, simple and unpretentious — not that, say, the same olive. The taste of olive oil depends on thousands of components: on the type of soil on which the trees grow, on the weather, on the method of harvesting. Even from the container: the smell of olive oil can keep only a glass bottle.
Our sunflower is not like that.
Wonderful (aroma-aatno) oil by the method of “cold pressing” (by the same way that the peasant Dmitry Bokarev used) can be prepared by any dilettante — by the way, in many southern villages they are doing this. Such oil turns out tasty and useful, practically all biologically active components are saved in it.
True, it is precisely because of the presence of these substances that it is stored poorly — it quickly becomes cloudy and becomes rancid.
In the home, as well as in filtered and unrefined oils, among other things, they contain tocopherols and phospholipids, which improve the body’s absorption of oil. But there may also be residual amounts of herbicides and other harmful impurities. (By the way, there are oils, for example cotton, which cannot be consumed without refining at all.)
You should not be afraid of unrefined oil, you just need to follow a few simple rules. First, when buying it on the market, feel free to ask for a certificate of conformity. And secondly, do not make large stocks: it is believed that the shelf life of unrefined oil, packaged in bottles, is 4 months, and draft oil is only one and a half.
And of course, do not forget that the benefits of this oil is manifested only when it is used in a cold form, and in no case when heated.
When it comes to heating, comes the turn of refined oil — the oil of the highest degree of purification.
It behaves well in the pan — does not foam and does not shoot, it does not have a sharp smell and expressive taste. He performs his duties in frying and baking in good faith.
In fairness, it is worth noting that olive oil is very resistant to heat and retains many of its beneficial properties in this state.
But olive is still different. My friend lives in Italy and complains that there is a big problem with unrefined oils. And the sunflower from the market is the only thing that she always asks to bring from Russia.
Much more important than black bread and black caviar.