When you go to a closet or a stand with sparkling water in a store, your eyes run up — so much choice is now given to lovers of “pop”.
Multicolored — from pearl lemon to dark brown — manufacturers of carbonated water offer a wide «repertoire» of tastes and aromas.
It is hard to imagine modern life without these drinks. What is it — a fad? New taste habit?
Or maybe a slightly distorted generic memory?
After all, mankind has always valued natural mineral waters and drinks based on them, knowing that many of them are healing a variety of diseases.
How did it all begin?
Hippocrates and Galen wrote about the beneficial properties of mineral water, the Romans organized balneological resorts in all their colonies, that is, almost all of Europe, and most of them exist to this day.
And of course, the sufferers had a dream — to get mineral water for home delivery, in some closed vessel so that gas bubbles would not erode.
The dream began to come true in the XVIII century, when English priest Joseph Priestley, who was fond of scientific research, managed to charge the water in the vessels with carbon dioxide emitted during the fermentation of beer — this happened in 1767.
For his amazing discovery, Priestley was admitted to the French Academy of Sciences and received a medal from the Royal Society — and no wonder, because the sparkling water he received was very pleasant to the taste.
Literally three years later, the Swedish chemist Olaf Bergman invented a device that made it possible to saturate water with carbon dioxide. He received the name «saturator».
Thanks to this device, the production of mineral sparkling water began on a massive scale, but it cost fabulous money.
By the way, at first, sparkling water was sealed in bottles with a rounded bottom — they needed to be stored in a horizontal position, like champagne bottles, so that the water constantly washes the cork and it does not dry out, keeping the vessel tight.
The beginning of the industrial production of soda
Further more. In 1783, the Swiss jeweler Jacob Schwepp invented a device suitable for low-cost industrial production of sparkling water.
He tried to introduce a new drink at home, offering doctors to distribute water bottles to patients for free, but did not have success and in 1790 he moved to England. Here he began not to distribute, but to sell sparkling water and soon became rich — the company he created is still flourishing.
In the 80s of the XIX century in the US, apothecary John Pemberton created Coca-Cola, diluting syrup with sparkling water.
At the base of the syrup was the usual caramel, which gave the drink a well-known color, to which sugar, natural flavors and a little sourness were added.
How sparkling water appeared in Russia
In Russia there were no explored sources of natural sparkling water and, accordingly, balneological resorts until the beginning of the 18th century, but in 1717 Tsar Peter I, who visited the waters in Germany, sent the doctor Schober to the Caucasus, who described part of the “storehouse” of the North Caucasus.
However, the development of sources and the creation of resorts began only at the end of the XVIII century, and flourished in the middle of the XIX century.
The production of sparkling water began in St. Petersburg at the beginning of the 19th century — confectioner Izler began to produce «seltzer» (from Selters — water) and soda.
He created Russia’s first «station of artificial mineral waters», where guests were not only treated with food and water, but also entertained with music.
The soda from Izler had a salty taste, and some consumers began to mix them with syrups and preserves.
In the USSR, soda was sold both in bottles and bottled — almost at every corner there were trays with a built-in compressor and containers with water and syrup: for 1 kopek you could buy a glass of water without syrup, for 3 kopecks — with syrup.
During the preparation of the 1980 Summer Olympics, Coca-Cola first appeared in the country, 94 years after its creation.
By the way, the first factory of the company was opened in Russia only in 1994.
An interesting fact was shared with us by Yuri Tyrsin, a professor at the Moscow State University of Food Production: it turns out that the domestic drink “Baikal” was created for the 1980 Moscow Olympics as an analogue of cola-type drinks, similar to them in composition and taste.
The main difference is in the composition of natural flavors.
Professor KI Eller, Ph.D., chief researcher at the Scientific and Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Sciences, confirmed that they contain similar ingredients: sugar, acidity regulator, natural dye — sugar color, giving these drinks a similar appearance.
They differ only in the specific natural aromatic composition and the presence in the Baikal of a weakly tonic extract of Eleutherococcus, and in cola drinks, caffeine, where it plays the role of an additional flavor ingredient rather than a tonic substance.
In addition, modern pasteurization and bottling technology allows cola manufacturers to provide the necessary shelf life for beverages without the use of chemical preservatives.
What to drink?
Than quench thirst, everyone decides for himself. Modern technologies allow for multi-stage water purification, because it is the main component of any drink and guarantees its quality and safety. The remaining ingredients of drinks produced by large companies comply with the requirements of food legislation and are absolutely safe for the body.
In addition, aseptic production technology allows to do without preservatives.
Other things being equal, it has long been proven that if you like the taste of a drink, then you will drink more and better replenish the body’s water reserves.