What do parents of schoolchildren care most about? Of course, about academic performance and health. However, not all the evils may be in the field of view of doctors and parents.
During the regular medical examination, the pediatrician may detect problems with his vision or posture.
But what falls, as a rule, from the field of view of doctors, is the problem of digestion.
In kindergarten or at home, food is usually paid a lot of attention. However, no one will watch that, how and how much your child eats at school.
It’s no secret that most children will prefer sausages and pizza to soup or stew, or even forget about having a snack.
So it turns out that for the graduating class, when you need to prepare for the entrance and final exams, adolescents have to get acquainted with a gastroenterologist, undergo unpleasant research, follow a diet and think not only about exams, but about whether to drink «maalox» before or after meals.
It is known that exactly in the first 3-5 years "school life" Changes are formed in the human body, which in the future will be felt by gastritis, duodenitis, problems with the liver and gall bladder, constipation and other diseases of the digestive system.
Do not forget about the problem of obesity: the body will be extremely reluctant to part with the overweight gained during the period of active growth and the beginning of sexual development.
It is clear that parents can not resort to school during recess with a pan of porridge or soup.
Puzzling the teacher with baby food is also not always possible.
But it is still possible to influence the schoolchild’s diet.
The schedule of classes in primary schools is usually quite clear and stable, so parents can organize the daily routine so that the child has at least 3-4 main meals throughout the day.
Everything is much more complicated with high school students: their life program is richer, and it’s very difficult to cope with the teenage mentality and the desire to do everything in their own way. One of the important arguments that works in this situation is the connection of the food culture with the appearance: something like “if you eat chips, you will grow fat”.
However, easy victories still do not wait.
Not every person’s appetite wakes up with an alarm clock. It usually takes a couple of hours to fully awaken the digestive system.
It is on this physiological peculiarity that the tradition of the second breakfast is based — I must say, a completely justified tradition.
Do not try to feed a sleepy child: a “sleeping” stomach will still not appreciate your culinary masterpieces, even if they are very healthy.
Offer him a cup of tea, milk or cocoa with a biscuit, sandwich or bun.
Even if the child eats breakfast with pleasure, try not to overload his body with easily digestible carbohydrates and fats: they provoke a sharp increase, and then an equally sharp decrease in blood sugar, which greatly interferes with the work of the brain.
And an excess of fatty foods causes drowsiness.
Do not feed children with instant cereals: they contain too much sugar!
For those children who do not eat at home, the second breakfast should be the second: it should be about 15-20% of the daily diet. Ideal — porridge, milk soup or scrambled eggs. If the child does not go to the school canteen, put him breakfast with you.
It can be a fruit curd (bought in a store or cooked from natural curd with fruits, berries or dried fruits), cheesecakes, casserole or baked with curd fruits, a bun or patty, a cheese or ham sandwich (boiled sausage is not the best option: it has a lot of fat, and it also deteriorates quickly at room temperature).
Pay attention: you should not give a child with him a child only fruit or a bag of juice — fruit acids can irritate the mucous membrane, they can not be eaten «on an empty stomach.»
«Flour» breakfast to get involved is not worth it.
Buns and sandwiches alternate with cottage cheese and casseroles.
For normal functioning of the digestive system, it is necessary that not only carbohydrates (their work will last for 20-40 minutes), but also proteins and fats should be ingested into the body with food.
They stimulate the secretion of pancreatic juices and bile from the gallbladder.
Regular absence of these components in the food leads to a violation of the secretion of digestive juices and stagnation of bile, which can later cause precipitation of bile salts and the formation of stones.
If your child stays in school after 13.00, he must have a hot lunch.
In fairness it should be noted that the food in school canteens in recent years has changed a lot, and for the better.
At least the child in the school canteen now, as a rule, has a selection of hot dishes.
For example, if for some reason he does not eat fish, he may take meat or chicken for lunch. Does not want rice — takes buckwheat or potatoes.
But it is also important to explain to the child how important a normal lunch is to his health.
If the child does not eat in the school cafeteria, lunch should be waiting for him at home. And for that, there is absolutely no need to write out a nanny, grandmother and governess. He just needs to know where to find and how to heat food.
But you need to take care of this in advance.
A full meal does not have to include three meals. If a child eats soup, that’s good.
Soup with meat or fish, borscht, cream soup, hodgepodge themselves can be the main course.
If the child does not like soup, you can get second course and salad.
Often parents fill the refrigerator with convenience store foods — all kinds of dumplings and “ready” meatballs, referring to the speed of cooking and the fact that the child eats them with pleasure.
Well, from time to time it is possible to include semi-finished products in your diet, but you should never do it all the time: as a rule, these products contain a lot of fat, salt, soy protein and very little fiber.
Lunch — this is the main meal during the day, it should include meat or fish and vegetables in any form: salad, stewed, mashed potatoes.
- the potato is not a full-fledged vegetable and contains little fiber, important for digestion
- pasta should also not be a daily meal. In the diet of the child, they should not appear more often 3-4 times a week.
- fish and other seafood should be on the table as often as possible (provided that the child is not allergic to fish — in this case, seaweed will do)
It is important that the diet of the child contains a full range of nutrients and is diverse: it must contain vegetable and animal proteins and fats, and the carbohydrate part should be mainly represented by complex carbohydrates, that is, grains and fruits, easily digestible carbohydrates should fall no more than 65 -80 grams per day.
The ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates should be close to the following:
1-1.5 (proteins): 2 (fats): 3.5-4 (carbohydrates)
Tea time is not an obligatory meal for school-age children, but for first graders it can be saved — it will be easier for them to adapt to the new daily routine.
As an afternoon tea you can offer tea, compote, juice with cookies or yogurt and some fruit.
If a child attends a sports school, snack will not hurt him, either.
Moreover, it can be more dense than for ordinary schoolchildren and should include some protein product — cheesecake, casserole, kefir, scrambled eggs.
Dinner should cover about 20% of the child’s diet and be no later than 2-3 hours before bedtime.
At dinner, it is better to offer boiled, stewed or baked dishes.
But the roast is not very suitable for a children’s dinner, as it is absorbed longer.
The optimal order of nutrition of the child during the day:
7.30 — 8.00 — breakfast at home (5-20% of the daily ration)
10.00 — 11.00 — hot breakfast at school (10-20% of the daily ration)
12.00 — 13.00 — lunch at home or at school (30-35% of the daily diet)
16.00 — 18-19 o’clock — afternoon snack (5-10% of the daily diet)
19.00 — 19.30 — dinner at home (20% of the daily ration)
Many parents try to constantly give the child vitamins in pills, considering it necessary. However, this is wrong: a healthy child does not need additional vitamin complexes.
Vitamins should be given to children only at increased loads, during the period of illness or recovery.
But what you really need to take care of is child drinking mode.
Primary school students should drink about 1.5-2 liters of water daily, for high school students this rate rises to 2-2.5 liters.