The edible fruits, which are familiar to everyone, are produced by one of the types of pineapple — pineapple large-crested, it is crested or ordinary pineapple (Ananas comosus).
Photo: shutterstock, Elena Ilyicheva
The edible fruits that are known to everyone are produced by one type of pineapple — pineapple, the same pineapple crested or ordinary (Ananas comosus).
These fruits are a large (up to 2 kg) stems, similar to a cone of coniferous plants, golden brown, with a bunch of short leaves at the top.
Homeland pineapple — arid plateau Mato Grosso on the border of Brazil and Paraguay. However, already in the pre-Columbian times, the pineapple spread to very wide American territories and, crossing the equator, found itself in Central America.
Now it is grown in tropical countries around the world.
The very first of Europeans tried pineapple Christopher Columbus.
It happened 500 years ago in Cuba, when the Indians brought the fruit of pineapple to white aliens as a sign of good intentions. Columbus and his companions did not like pineapple at all, his taste was too unusual. However, since then, pineapple has become symbol of hospitality.
As the legend says, the captain of a merchant ship, returning from a long voyage, hung out a pineapple at his door, thereby inviting his friends to a festive dinner.
It is no coincidence that this exotic fruit has become emblem of the american hotel association.
Europeans met with pineapple in the XVI century. The first descriptions of this fruit belong to the Spanish missionary and chronicler Pedro de Cieza de Leon (Pedro de Cieza de León), who told in detail about what he saw in Peru, and the French writer and traveler Jean de Leri (Jean de Léry), describing Brazil.
Pineapple was introduced first to England, then to France.
The first pineapples grown in European greenhouses were presented to the court of Louis XV in 1733.
Like most fruits, pineapple contains many useful: vitamins (for example, vitamin E) and trace elements (for example, manganese rare in other fruits).
But the modern fashion for pineapple arose after the beneficial properties of the bromelain enzyme contained in pineapples were discovered.
The main advantage bromelain — the ability to break down food proteins, which are usually split in the body slowly and not completely (the same enzyme papain is found in green papaya, but ripe pineapple is much tastier than unripe papaya).
In addition, bromelain helps the intestine to destroy the most resistant and harmful bacteria.
It is also able to relax muscles and relieve spasm.
And in this sense, pineapple is quite erotic (so that “pineapples in champagne” can be considered an excellent aphrodisiac!).
Many have heard about the “economy class syndrome”: dangerous clots form in the plane from long immobility in the blood, and some doctors advise taking an aspirin pill before flying.
Of course, pineapple medication will not replace, but can improve blood circulation.
In addition, bromelen partially cleanses the walls of blood vessels and liver from cholesterol plaques.
A few years ago, the female pineapple diet came into fashion. Famous models and actresses ate several pineapples a day.
But this diet is not for everyone.
Indeed, if you diet on pineapples, excess proteins and slags are likely to burn. It is possible that the pressure will drop and blood circulation will improve.
But even very ripe pineapples have enough acid to remind a person of an ulcer and gastritis.
Pineapple can be used as an external remedy for the prevention of oily skin: if you wipe problem areas of the skin with a piece of pineapple, it helps to cope with its excessive fat content.
All cultivated varieties of edible pineapple go back to one of the species of this herbaceous plant — large-crested pineapple.
It is grown in tropical countries around the world — in Central and South America, South Africa, Central and Southeast Asia.
More than 60 varieties of pineapple are known.
They differ in size, shape, coloration, taste, aroma, presence or absence of fiber in the pulp and a number of other signs.
Many varieties of pineapples are combined in varietal groups.
In group Queen (“Royal”) includes pineapple varieties such as the South African Natal Queen (Natal Queen), Queen, MacGregor (MacGregor), Z-Queen. As a rule, it is a fruit with a pale green color, with small and spiny leaves. On average, the weight of the fetus is about 1.3-1.5 kg.
These are dessert varieties; they are eaten fresh and used for preservation.
To group Spanish («Spanish») relate Spanish red (Red Spanish), Pinya Blanca, Cabezona (Cabezona), Singapore, Canning, Valera (Valera).
On average, the mass of these pineapples ranges from one and a half to ten (!) Kg.
A number of varieties included in this group does not have spines on the leaves.
As a rule, these are table varieties, which are somewhat inferior to the dessert varieties of this fruit in taste.
However, they are not only canned, but also eaten fresh.
In group Smooth cayenne («Cayenne») include varieties Baron Rothschild (Barón de Rothschild), G-25, Santo Domingo (St. Dominguo), Saint Michel (St.
Michael), Q (Kew, also Gaimpew), Maipuri (Maipure), Sarawak (Sarawak), Esmeralda (La Esmeralda), Hilo (Hilo), Champaka (Champaca), Amrita (Amritha), Typhoon (Typhones 1,2,3,4, & five), MD-2 (he 73–114), MD-1 (he 73-50 and CO-2) other.
This group accounts for up to 90% of the global market for canned pineapples.
In group Abacaxi includes pineapples with white or almost white skin.
Besides the Abacaxi variety, it is a famous variety. Kona Sugar Loaf (Kona Sugarloaf), and Black jamaica (Black Jamaica) and Montuffar (Montufar).
Brazilian pineapple is also known. Pernambuco (Pernambuco) with small fruits, small and especially sweet Queen Victoria (Queen Victoria), pineapples Variegated pineapple with red and white fruits, very sweet dwarf pineapples (Baby), Thai Tard sri thong (they are Phuket pineapple) and Sriracha, indian Mauritius (they are European Pine, Malacca Queen, Red Ceylon and Red Malacca) and many others.
Edible can be fruits of other pineapple species, although in terms of quality and taste, they are noticeably inferior to the fruits of large-browned pineapple.
For example, small acidic fruits of the form Ananas sagenaria in South America it is used to produce local alcohol.
Chopped or pureed pineapple is added to yogurt, sweets, ice cream, fruit salads, desserts, pastries. For these purposes, canned pineapples are often used.
Pineapple pulp can be cooked very tasty jam.
Pineapple is good for preparing main dishes: it goes well with fish and seafood, meat, poultry (and fresh pineapple is much better than canned here).
Combinations of this kind are constantly present in the Antilles, Creole and Asian recipes.
Pineapple juice is served as a standalone drink, as well as part of sugary drinks, alcoholic and non-alcoholic cocktails.
Peel pineapple very simple. To do this, cut the top with leaves and the lower part, then put the pineapple on a cutting board and remove the peel strips with a sharp knife, moving from top to bottom.
Then you can cut the peeled fruit into four pieces lengthwise and remove a rather hard core (however, many people eat pineapple along with the core).
You can also cut pineapple in circles.
Nowadays, pineapple is grown in tropical countries around the world, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and Central and South America, in Asia and in Africa.
Accordingly, in different territories the harvest of pineapple is harvested in different months. Moreover, the climate of many countries allows to collect several harvests per year.
Therefore, pineapple in world trade has long ceased to be a seasonal product.
At picking pineapple It is worth paying attention not only to the fruit, but also to the leaves.
The leaves of a ripe pineapple are easily separated from the fruit. When choosing, pull one sheet.
If it separates easily, the fruit is ripe.
Weigh the pineapple in your hand.
If it seems too light for its size, it will not be very sweet.
Knock the fruit with your knuckles.
A dull sound indicates ripeness.
There should be no dark spots on the pineapple peel.
They say that the fruit is already overripe and can not be stored for a long time.
The rind of the ripe fruit should be firm, but not very hard.
Immature pineapples are firm to the touch. Too soft fruit is also not worth buying.
Most likely, the processes of decay have already begun in it, and it will taste sourish.
If you need to pick a pineapple sweeter, pay attention to the leaves.
Varieties with spines on the leaves are characterized by a higher content of natural sugars than smooth leaves.
An important sign of a ripe pineapple is the smell. The light, sweetish flavor of the incised fruit is a sign of ripeness. In immature fruit the smell is weak, or it does not exist at all.
Sharp smell is characteristic of overripe fruit.
If the purchased pineapple was still immature, let it lie for a day or two at room temperature.
It is not recommended to store the fruit outside the refrigerator for more than three days, otherwise it may start to deteriorate.
AT the fridge pineapple is stored on average from 8 to 12 days.
It is desirable that the temperature in the fruit compartment does not decrease beyond the mark of 7.5-8 ° C (if the temperature is below 7 ° C, the fruit will freeze and spoil, and if it is above 8 ° C, it will perezreet and spoil).
Relative humidity at the storage site should not exceed 90%.
Before you put the pineapple in the refrigerator, you must first wrap it with paper or put it in a bag with holes.
Ideally, the pineapple should be turned about 1-2 times a day.
To keep the pineapple flesh for a long time, you can to freeze.
To do this, peeled pineapple is cut into pieces, packed in a plastic bag and sent to the freezer.
During storage, the bag must be sealed.
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