With the advent of November, fresh persimmon appears on the market stalls — a real autumn fruit, both in color and in season.
It can be tart and astringent, and sweet.
With coming november fresh persimmon appears on the market stalls — a real autumn fruit, both in color and in season.
It is also astringent and astringent, and sweet — and depending on the variety, it requires different treatment.
Often we hear that persimmon comes from the Far East — from China and Japan. This is not entirely true, because both Australia and America have their own kinds of persimmon. However, the fact that the inhabitants of China and Japan have long indulged themselves with the tender pulp of the fruits of cultural persimmon is indeed true.
It is true that it was the eastern persimmon introduced in Europe in the 18th century.
However, the inhabitants of Western Europe first met with persimmon not in the East, but in America.
Thanks to the Indians, they learned: you need to wait for the leaves to fall, so that only bright orange fruits hang on gray trees, as if tied to strings.
Later it turned out that many varieties of persimmon are growing on other continents, including quite wide areas in Asia.
Persimmon is very useful.
It compensates for the lack of vitamins and minerals in the body — primarily, vitamins C, P, beta-carotene, group B, iodine, potassium, magnesium.
It gently stimulates the digestive process due to dietary fiber, which is contained in it in large quantities. In addition, dietary fibers slow down the absorption of sugars and lower cholesterol levels, absorb harmful impurities, including heavy metal salts.
In the end, in 100 grams of persimmon about 70 kcal, however, after eating a little thing or two, you will long feel full.
There are about two thousand varieties of persimmon in the world.
It can be from red to dark brown, from perfectly round and heart-shaped, to flattened and almost square.
And also weighs in different ways — from 60 to 500 grams.
Biologists distinguish between several species of wild persimmon — Caucasian persimmon (Diospiros lotus, homeland — the Far East), virgin persimmon (Diospiros virjiniana, homeland is North America) kaki (Diospiros kaki, homeland — Asia), black sapot (Diospyros digyna, Homeland — Central America) and some others.
Everything persimmon cultivars bred on the basis of virgin and eastern persimmon.
Cultural persimmon in many countries is conventionally divided into varying — changing color when ripe and constant — not changing.
In Russia and the CIS countries, this classification is a little complicated and all cultural varieties of persimmon are divided into three groups: tannins (or constant), which corresponds to constant tart varieties; bestannidnye (or sweet), which corresponds to constant sweet varieties; and varying ( bead, or chocolate).
In the mind regular buyers the whole persimmon is divided into two types: knitting and non-knitting.
Knitting varieties are edible only when they have fully matured — in the case of some varieties, almost to a gel-like state.
But popular in Russia fruit varieties kinglet and varieties of persimmon close to it can be eaten not even fully ripe: they do not knit at all.
Persimmon, which in Russia is known as little king officially known as a variety chiakume and at one time was derived from eastern persimmon.
AT Of spain there is a persimmon protected by geographic name — fruits of the variety Rojo brillante (also derived from eastern persimmona) with geographic name Kaki Ribera del Xúquer PDO.
They are large, bright orange, with tight skin, very sweet, juicy, not at all astringent (since they are sold only in ripe form).
AT Israel grow persimmon varieties Sharon (Sharon Fruit). This is also a cultivar eastern persimmon, in which there is very little tannin.
Sharons are broken from the tree immature, and then artificially accelerate the ripening of fruits, while removing excess tannins by fumigating fruits with gas (this method of processing fruits is considered harmless).
Persimmon is known in Central America black sapot (Diospyros digyna), she Totlkuitlatsaputl, black persimmon (Black persimmon), chocolate persimmon, black apple, chocolate pudding (Chocolate pudding fruit).
When the fruit ripens, the smooth, thin green skin becomes brown-green.
Inside the fruit — glossy black-brown jelly-like sweet flesh with flat bones.
Most often, persimmon is eaten fresh.
However, it makes excellent salads and snacks, desserts and pastries, cocktails and other beverages.
With persimmon, you can cook very interesting meat dishes.
Dried persimmon is very popular in the East.
In Japan, they are called hoshigaki, in China — shi-bing, in Korea — gotgam, in Vietnam — hong ho.
Dried persimmon is eaten as a snack, dessert, used to prepare various dishes (about the same as other dried fruits).
In Korea, dried persimmon fruits are used to produce traditional Korean spices. sujeonggwa, and ripened fermented fruits are used for persimmon vinegar gamsikcho.
In Taiwan, the fruits of binding varieties are sealed in cans of lime water to get rid of bitterness.
This pre-prepared persimmon sold under the name crispy persimmon or water persimmon.
In the US, they especially like persimmon pudding, reminiscent of pumpkin pie, which is eaten with whipped cream.
In some areas of Manchuria and Korea, dried persimmon leaves are used to make tea.
Its Korean name is ghamnip cha.
The persimmon season starts at late October and continues to December. The latest fruits of seasonal persimmon can be bought in early January.
During these months, mainly persimmon is shipped to Russia from Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan.
December to February in Russia supply persimmon from Israel, at March-April — of South Africa.
The first impression of a persimmon can be deceptive: attractive-looking fruits may turn out to be, though sweet, but completely inedible.
The fact is that while the persimmon fruits ripen, they contain tannins — they provide a specific «astringent» effect.
Guaranteed sweet, tender, non-binding, can only be fully ripe persimmon.
But how to recognize ripe and unripe fruits?
Absolutely confident in the ripeness of persimmon can be those who live in southern latitudes. For example, in Tuapse, the bright lights of orange persimmon hang on trees until the New Year. And it ripens completely, and the cold manages to grab it.
But the «northern neighbors» need to know a few rules.
All varieties of persimmon are divided into two kinds — “ordinary”, or persimmon itself, and “blood flakes«.
Regular persimmon loses its knitting flavor only after full ripening, when its flesh acquires a jelly-like consistency.
The little king in principle, it does not knit: it is always sweet and gentle, even if it is a little unripe. However, there is one «but.» If pollination has occurred and the seeds have formed, then the “blood beetle” ripens strong, sweet and tasty, inside it is brown (for which it is also called “chocolate”).
If there was no pollination, the seeds are not formed, and instead of a chocolate “blood orange”, tart, astringent fruits are obtained.
It is quite nutritious, but rather tasteless.
And their taste does not depend on the ripening period: both early and middle-ripening and late-ripening varieties can be tart.
Try hard choose a king with soft barrels.
The main thing is to look at the stalk: both the leaves and the stalk itself must be dry, brown in color.
The kinglet can be determined by the characteristic dark-red skin color and brown, with even darker veins flesh.
As a rule, these are small round fruits.
A delicious taste of persimmon varieties «shahin— bright, large, in the shape of a heart.
But this is not a “kinglet”, which means that if the fruits are unripe, they can have astringent taste.
Ripe shakhin can be distinguished by a translucent skin with thin black ringlets: the more of them, the more ripe the persimmon.
Mature persimmon should be soft, with a smooth, shiny, thin translucent skin.
Astringent taste is not peculiar spanish persimmon — big, bright orange, dense and sweet.
Israeli persimmon variety sharon also contains very little tannin.
Here is several ways to help ripen persimmon.
1. Put it in one plastic bag with apples or tomatoes: these fruits produce ethylene gas, which will make the persimmon ripen faster.
2. Within 10-12 hours, hold the persimmon in warm (30-40 degrees) water — tannins, and hence, the astringent taste will go away.
3. Pin the hard fruits with a needle dipped in alcohol.
4. Binding persimmon can be frozen, poured or dried.
Dried persimmon does not knit at all, however, if it is wetted, the tart unpleasant taste can recover.
Just bought persimmon can Keep refrigerated in conjunction with other products, but with such storage, fruit should be consumed within three days.
To prolong the freshness of persimmon will help lower temperature, from 0 to -1 degrees: so the fruit will lie for about three months.
The humidity here should be 85-90%: if the humidity level is lower, the persimmon will start to wrinkle, and at higher humidity, the fruits will be covered with mold.
You can store persimmon in the freezer. Fast freezing allows you to save all the useful properties of persimmon.
And with this method of storage, the whole astringent astringency of the fruits goes away, they become much tastier and stored for about six months. You can freeze the persimmon in sugar syrup, putting the fruit in jars.
Defrost persimmon at room temperature.
However, the pulp of thawed persimmon becomes too soft, so you have to eat it with a spoon.
Another way to store persimmon is drying. To dry the persimmon on your own, you need to choose the hardest seedless fruit, peel it, cut it into pieces and put it in the oven.
Dry persimmon at a temperature of 40 — 45 degrees. It is desirable to monitor the process, readiness is determined by eye, it is important that the fruits do not darken.
Dried persimmon slices are sweet and fragrant, they can be covered with a light white bloom from the abundance of sugars.
What you need to know about persimmon.
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