There are four groups of orange varieties: ordinary — fruits with yellow flesh, multi-seeded; blood oranges with blood-red flesh, small and very sweet; umbilical.
Orange — fruit orange tree (Citrus sinensis). Hard to believe, but historically an orange is mandarin hybrid (Citrus reticulata) and pomelo (Citrus maxima).
However, it appeared so long ago that now nobody remembers its hybrid origin: it is known that oranges were cultivated in China another 2.5 thousand years BC.
Orange is a round citrus fruit with an orange peel, sometimes with red veins.
Its flesh is sourish, light orange, or (near orange-peanuts) of dark red color, divided into slices.
There are oranges with stones and without them.
The origin of the Russian word orange and french orange not completely clear.
Some suggest that the word orange derived from the same French word or — «golden», others — that from the Persian-Arabic word naerang — «the bitterness of taste.» There is a peculiar version of the origin of the Russian word «orange».
Portuguese navigators called it the «Chinese apple.»
Oranges came to Russia from Holland, in Dutch “apple” — appel, «Chinese» — sien.
So it turned out — an orange.
In Europe oranges appeared in the 15th century; they were brought from the East by Genoese or Portuguese merchants. In the 16th century in Central Europe it was considered fashionable to plant orange trees in the so-called greenhouses (the word «greenhouse», of course, comes from orange). For centuries, orange has remained a rare, exotic fruit in Europe.
These fruits were either turned into candied fruits, or used primarily for serving the table.
They were presented as a gift, especially to the sick, and the donor of oranges was considered to be an elegant and non-poor person.
Oranges are fruits with a fairly high content of vitamins, especially C, B1 and P, so their use prevents the development of vitamin deficiency. Oranges contain up to 12% sugars, organic acids (0.6–2% citric acid), a large amount of pectic substances (up to 12% in the pulp, up to 16% in the outer layer of the peel and up to 30% in the inner layer of the peel of the fruit). The minerals are dominated by salts of calcium, potassium, phosphorus, there is a little iodine.
Orange is a supplier of inositol (vitamin B8), which regulates fat metabolism in the body, lowers cholesterol in the blood, reduces vascular spasms, normalizes intestinal motility, helps to eliminate toxins.
Orange low calories (41 kcal per 100 g).
Currently, there are several dozen varieties of oranges in the world.
Many varieties are typical for specific areas.
There are several groups of orange varieties.
one. Ordinary, they are light delicacies (blondes fines according to the French classification).
They are the ones that are always found in any Russian store. They can vary in shape (round or slightly elongated), size (from small to large), taste and color. Bones are usually present, sometimes in large quantities.
The flesh is usually yellow, often with an orange tinge.
They can be both very juicy and dryish, both sour and sour-sweet. Common oranges include, for example, varieties:
- Salustiana (Salustiana, Spain and Morocco) — round or slightly flat, the skin is tender, the flesh is very juicy;
- Chamuti (Samouti, Israel) — large, oval, rough skin, juicy and aromatic flesh;
- valencia, the same Valencia Leith (late Valencian, Valencia late, also just Spain, Morocco, Israel, Uruguay, Argentina, South Africa) — round, smooth skin, light orange, juicy, slightly acidic;
- gamlin(Hamlin) — common in Florida, dwarf, often grown at home;
- kadanera(Cadanera) — pitted orange, derived in Spain, distributed in Morocco and Algeria; it is also sold under the names Cadena Fina, Cadena Jueso, Precocca de Valencia, Precocca de Canares, Valencia San Pépins (Valencia pitted);
- Calabrese or Calabrese oval(Calabrese Ovale) — grows in Italy, in Calabria;
- domestic variety firstborn
- grade the best Sukhumi, also derived by Soviet breeders;
- balta (Pakistan);
- belladonna(Belladonna, Italy);
- Berna(Berna) — grown mainly in Spain
- biondo commune(Biondo Comune) — is widely grown in the Mediterranean basin, especially in North Africa and Egypt, Greece, Italy and Spain, also known as Koines, Liscio, Beledi, Nostrale;
- Biondo Riccio (Biondo riccio, Italy);
- carvalhal (Carvalhal, Portugal)
- castellana (Castellana, Spain)
- Clanor (Clanor, South Africa)
- Don Joao (Dom joão, Portugal)
- fukuhara (Fukuhara, Japan)
- gardner (Gardner, Florida State)
- homosassa, homosassa (Homosassa, Florida)
- jincheng (Jincheng, China)
- joppa (Joppa, South Africa, Texas)
- hattmales (Khettmali, Israel, Lebanon)
- a horse(Kona), a type of Valencia bred in Hawaii
- Liu Gong (Lue gim gong, Florida) is also a variation of Valencia
- mock maker (Macetera, Spain)
- malta (Malta, Pakistan)
- maltais blond, maltese white (Maltaise Blonde, North Africa)
- altaise Ovale:
- maltaise oval (Maltaise Ovale, South Africa), also known as gari(Garey’s) and california mediterranean sweet(California Mediterranean Sweet)
- marrs (Marrs, California, Iran, Texas) with relatively low acidity
- midswit (Midsweet, Florida State)
- narinha (Narinja, South India)
- Parson Brown (Florida State, Mexico, Turkey), fruits are round, medium size, contain 10-30 seeds each, the peel and juice are not too bright; these are the earliest oranges in the United States (they ripen in Texas in early September, from early October to January in the state of Florida;
- pen (Brazil);
- pen koroa (Pera coroa, Brazil);
- pen natal (Pera natal, Brazil);
- Pero Rio (Pera rio, Brazil);
- pineapple, pineapple (Pineapple, North and South America, India);
- prime minister (Pineapple, South Africa)
- genus red(Rhode red), Valencia variant, more juicy and less acid
- robl (Roble, Florida State) is of Spanish origin, very sweet
- queen, queen (Queen, South Africa)
- satgudi (Satgudi, South India)
- celeta (Seleta), he select (Selecta, Australia, Brazil), quite sour
- shamuti masri (Shamouti masry, Egypt), a variant of chamuti
- Sunstar (Sunstar, Florida State)
- tomango (Tomango, South Africa)
- is correct (Verna, Algeria, Morocco, Mexico, Spain)
- vicia (Vicieda, Algeria, Morocco, Spain)
- vestin (Westin, Brazil)
- Valencia Temprana (Valencia temprana, Spain)
A variety of ordinary oranges is called sugar oranges, which are sometimes classified as a separate group. Very often they have a direct resemblance to varieties of ordinary oranges.
This fruit is very low in acid. Among the sugar varieties:
- vanilla sanguinho (Vainiglia sanguigno, Italy) — the flesh of the fetus is pink, but it does not belong to the oranges-blood orange (see below), because the carotenoid pigment lycopene, and not the anthocyanin, like that of the blood beetles, takes part in the pigmentation;
- Shamuti Meski (Shamouti meski, Middle East) — acidless form of Shamuti orange;
- Mozambi(Mosambi) — grows in India and Pakistan, somewhat fresh.
In a separate group often makes and Yaffro Oranges, jaffian oranges, who collect in Israel from December to May.
These are large fruits with thick, tuberous peel, very sweet and juicy.
2 Navel oranges, they are inspired (blondes navels according to the French classification, from Fr. and eng. navel — “navel”).
The fruit is usually large, beautiful and has a characteristic navel (the second rudimentary fruit) at the top of the fruit.
The skin is usually thin, smooth and shiny. Color — bright orange. There is usually no bone.
Chamomile oranges are usually more expensive than ordinary oranges. Among the varieties:
- navlin, the same a lot (Naveline, Spain, Morocco, South Africa) — large, the skin can be rough, the pulp is juicy and sweet;
- navlat (Navelate, Spain, Morocco, South America, South Africa) — medium size, rough skin, juicy, sweet flesh;
- Washington, DC (Washington navel, Spain, Morocco, USA, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, bred in Brazil) — large, firm, very pronounced «navel», the flesh is quite juicy and pleasant;
- Thomson Navell (Thomson navel, Morocco, USA, Chile, Australia, bred in California) — the fruits are slightly elongated, with a thinner and smoother courage than that of Washington, the pulp is juicy, fragrant, seedless;
- Kara Kara (Cara Cara navel), growing mainly in Venezuela, South Africa and California (in the San Joaquin Valley), with a soft pink-red color, sweet and with relatively low acidity.
3 Kings (sanguines according to the French classification) — with blood-red flesh, small and very sweet.
Kings come from Italy, from the island of Sicily. Now, however, they are also grown in other countries, including the USA, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia.
Fruits are usually medium in size, the peel is orange, sometimes with a reddish tinge or reddish spots.
The bone is usually not in them. The flesh is juicy, its color is from red to blood-red and burgundy.
Sometimes the flesh is orange or yellowish with red veins.
The color of the pulp is due to the presence of a large number of anthocyanins (these are antioxidants that reduce the risk of many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases).
Red oranges have a lot of iron and vitamins (usually more than their orange counterparts). Among the varieties:
- moro (Moro, Italy) — fruits of medium size, round, with a slight tendency to ovality, rough skin, juicy softness;
- double fin (Double fine, Italy, Spain, Morocco) — the fruits are large, the skin is thin, the flesh is bright red, juicy;
- Maltese (Maltaise, Malta, Tunisia) — the fruits are almost round, with a slight tendency to ovality, the skin is red, the flesh is bright red or with red-purple veins, very juicy, sour;
- taro (Tarocco, Italy) — the fruits are rather large, pear-shaped, the skin is smooth, the flesh is fleshy, quite juicy.
- Sanguinello commune (Sanguinello comune, Italy) — fruits of medium size, few or no seeds, orange peel with red, medium thickness, moderately hard, flesh dark red, juicy, fragrant;
- sanguinello moscato (Sanguinello moscato, Italy) — grows on the slopes of Mount Etna in Sicily, where it is one of the main varieties; some other varieties of sanguinello — Sanguinello Moscato Nucellare 49-5-3, Sanguinello Moscato Nucellare 49-5-5, Sanguinello Moscato di Cuscunà;
- sanguinello pinyu (Sanguinello pignu, Italy) — has some features of other varieties Sanguinello, but not so much, and the grounds for belonging to a group are somewhat doubtful. Most often, the fruits are not entirely red, but with red spots both on the peel and on the pulp. Perhaps the variety comes from ordinary oranges.
- sanguinelli (Sanguinelli, Spain)
- doblefina (Doblefina)
- washington sanguin (Washington Sanguine), derived from valifiers.
Oranges grown in Sicily are varieties of moro, tarocco, and sanguinello groups (except Sanguinello pignu) protected by geographic name Sicilian Red Oranges (Arancia rossa di Sicilia) with status Igp — Indicazione geografica protetta.
The fruits of orange are consumed fresh and for making beverages.
They are put in fruit salads and desserts.
Oranges are used to make jam and jam.
Oranges are often put in the main dishes.
It is appropriate to look next to the bird (duck with oranges).
Orange peel used as a substitute for orange peel in the preparation of various drugs, tinctures, syrups, extracts, as well as in the food industry.
From the peel of orange get orange oil.
The season of oranges varies in different countries; in addition, different varieties ripen at different times.
In the North hemisphere, oranges are harvested mainly from November to March (although, depending on the area and variety of orange, the harvest can be harvested in September-October or in April-May).
In the Southern Hemisphere (in particular, in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, South Africa) oranges have ripened in the months corresponding to our summer.
At choosing an orange in the store and on the market, first of all, you should pay attention to its variety: different varieties of orange differ from each other in size, juiciness, and acidity.
Even if a particular variety cannot be determined and you can, you can always choose between a common, navel orange or a king orange.
It is necessary to pay attention to the weight and size of the fetus. As a rule, the heavier the orange, the sweeter it will be.
But, at the same time, the larger it is, the less tasty it will be.
Therefore, you should choose oranges, small sizes, but with a lot of weight.
Ripe fruit will always be fragrant.
We recommend buying oranges, which were collected from November to December.
Find out when the fruits were collected, in some cases, you can contact the seller on the market.
Oranges brought from the Mediterranean countries are considered the most delicious.
Oranges brought from Peru or South Africa are often broken off immature and they ripen in the course of transportation — often it affects the taste.
As for the peel, it does not affect the taste of oranges.
Fruits with thick and thin peel can be equally tasty.
The only difference is that the thick peel is much easier to clean.
As for the color of the peel and the pulp of oranges, you should not rely on this moment when choosing. First, different varieties have different color of the skin and pulp.
In addition, to make the color of the fruit orange, unfortunately, it is possible with the help of various chemicals.
Store oranges at home you can both in the refrigerator and outside it.
At a temperature of + 5-10 ° C in a well-ventilated room, oranges lie for up to two weeks.
If it is necessary to preserve oranges for a long time (up to 6 months), then wrap each fruit in a paper napkin and place it in a basement or other dark and cool room. Watch the humidity of the air, it should be 80-90%.
Suitable for long-term storage is considered an orange with a green tinge.
Juicy, bright citrus fruits easily become the main ingredient of salads. Salads are especially popular with.
To tell the truth, I don’t really like oranges by myself. To me they seem quite boring. .
I propose to support the body with a good portion of vitamin C and lift yourself in a bright mood.
Mandarin fruit is a valuable dietary fruit that increases appetite, improves metabolism and.
Orange juice contains a lot of vitamin C: one cup contains its almost daily rate for.