The time has passed when olives and olives considered a delicacy. And they were served for the holidays, showing the guests their refined taste.
Now it is a product of everyday demand.
But for many, they still cause a lot of questions. We collected the most burning ones, and gave true answers to them.
Are olives and olives the same?
Only in Russia the green fruits of the olive tree are called “olives”, and the black ones are called “olives”. In fact, it is the same fruit. It’s all about maturity.
AT october dense and elastic olives with light, almost white pulp are removed from the trees. They have already reached the standard size for their variety (caliber), and the color varies from green to straw yellow. AT November olive groves are painted in various shades of pink, interspersed with a light chestnut color.
December It is rich in maroon, reddish-black, deep purple and dark brown colors. Olives have finally ripened.
These are the most expensive and high-quality olives, which are distinguished from the other by dark pulp, and in that they are stored for a short time.
There are green olives that have been specially processed and turned black, but know that regardless of the color, they are still olives.
There are table olives and technical ones.
What is their difference?
For dining rooms characteristic juicy, tender flesh and easily detachable bone.
They are used for preservation, both in pure form (with and without a bone), and for stuffing with nuts, peppers, and lemons.
Olives of technical type are smaller and more rigid.
They go to production olive oil.
How are green olives stained black? Is chemistry used for this?
Is it safe for the body?
Green olives, collected in October, are harvested after collection and calibration. oxidation by oxygen. As a result of this procedure, which lasts from 7 to 10 days, olives are obtained black.
Such fruits are so called Black Oxidized Olives, that is, “black oxygen-oxidized olives”.
To stabilize the color in the brine add iron gluconate — food additive E579. Its maximum allowable level in the product is 150 mg / kg.
E585 also performs a similar function. iron lactate . Both additives are approved for use in food.
However, it is easy to calculate that 150 g of olives (the dry weight of olives in one standard 300-gram can of canned fruit) contains 22.5 mg of iron, which is more than the recommended daily allowance.
Keep this in mind choosing olives in the store.
And if you like and taste it black olives, then try to buy expensive, fully ripened fruits that are colored dark by nature itself. They possess more graceful and rich taste and juicy, not porous pulp.
In addition, the liquid in which they are located is clear and almost colorless.
There are olives with stones, and there are no.
Which is better?
There is an opinion that it is the flesh near the stone that greatly affects the natural taste.
In addition, pitted olives are much more saturated with brine, which means they have new flavor notes. If you want to try a quality product, then your choice — whole olives. Fruits without stones are best used for salads and snacks, which use rich to taste dressings, and not olive oil.
On the other hand, it is in the bones with a long shelf life of the product that substances harmful to the body accumulate.
Therefore, it is better to use olives with a stone as food as early as possible.
How not to be mistaken when choosing canned olives in the store?
What to look for?
1. Olives are sold in glass and tin cans. Glass, of course, more expensive. Glass packaging gives you the opportunity to evaluate the goods before the purchase.
The surface of the olives should be smooth and free from strong, sloppy damage at the site of the removed bone.
2. Ripe black olives are duller, with no gloss than “colored”.
There may be color spots on them, since natural fruits have the full right to do so.
3. The size of the fruits in one package (jar) must be the same.
By the way, according to the caliber of olives, like shrimps, you can estimate their number in one kilogram. The smaller the numbers, the better, because such olives are large and heavy. The maximum size is 60/70, the minimum is 360/400.
Although there are exceptions: in Greece there are wonderful varieties of size 70/90.
4. There should be no rust on the tin.
If it is, it is a signal of violation of storage conditions, and then the olives can be damaged.
5. It is possible to assess the quality of olives even during the first visual inspection at home.
The stone should not fall out of the fetus.
If so, the olive is stale.
In the shops a lot of stuffed olives.
What are the most popular fillers?
And how is the process of stuffing?
The most affordable and cheap are olives stuffed with garlic and anchovies.
The most expensive — with almonds, in this case, the filling is more expensive than the olives.
Usually, the bones are mechanically removed when stuffing, and the filling of the olives with the filling is done manually.
There are many varieties of olives, so fakes are possible.
How is the definition of varietal affiliation of an olive tree?
There are varieties that differ from each other very much: in size, oil content, taste, chemical characteristics, ripening, bone-to-pulp ratio. With them easier. And there are varieties that are so widely distributed and popular that it is rather difficult to keep track of their modifications in different geographic points.
It is these varieties and subject to fraud. Now in Spain and Morocco are special banks, World Olive Germplasm Banks, where DNA samples of all world olive varieties are stored.
The reliability of the product can now be determined by conducting a genetic analysis.
In addition, there are varieties of olives, such as “kalamata” (kalamata), which are given the status Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), that is, they have an exact geographical reference to the place of origin.
From table olives often prepare all sorts of preserves: toad, pastes, spreads, and more. Are there any particular varieties of olives that are used for this purpose?
And what rules govern the production of this product?
Certain varieties that go only for preserves are not. At the same time, of course, olives are selected which have a lot of tasty, fleshy pulp, for example, “gaeta”.
At present, there are no laws regulating the production of preserves, and each manufacturer is free to choose ingredients and recipes.
The most popular varieties of table olives from Europe:
Gordal Sevillana, Spain.
Caliber 100/120, the weight of one giant olive reaches up to 12 grams.
Meaty with a mild flavor.
Often stuffed, harvested green.
Manzanilla, Sevilla, Spain. Medium-sized, oval-shaped, resemble an apple in shape (hence the name of the apple variety), the flesh is dense with an excellent texture with a rich, memorable taste. Often used for stuffing.
Collected both green and almost black.
Hojiblanca, Andalusia, Spain.
Olives are medium in size. The flesh is smooth and tender, with a pleasant bitter taste.
It goes well with white meat and fish.
Olives of this variety are more often harvested already ripe.
Go and the production of oil.
Picholine, Provence, France. An olive of medium and small size with a delicate exquisite slightly salty taste.
Often preserved with Provencal herbs or lemon juice (acid).
Le Cailletier, Nice, France. Known as Niçoise Olives, since olives of this particular variety are recommended for the salad of the same name. Medium-sized fruits with large bones and a small amount of sourish pulp.
Gather ripe, brown-purple or brown-black.
Sold always with a stone in olive oil, often with the addition of spicy herbs.
Kalamata, Peloponnese peninsula, Greece. Large fruits with juicy pulp when ripe are painted in purple color, its shape resembles almonds. Olives with a rich characteristic, rich fruit flavor.
They are often pickled in red wine vinegar or in olive oil.
They are always sold with a bone.
Black Gaeta, Lazio, Italy.
Often subjected to natural drying, therefore wrinkled.
They are supplied in olive oil with herbs, rosemary in particular. Have a moderately sour taste.
Always available bone.