Kumquat, kinkan, fortunella, Chinese mandarins are all names for the same fruit, the smallest citrus fruit in the world.
Kumquat, kinkan, fortunella, Chinese mandarins are all names of the same fruit, the smallest citrus in the world.
The length of these oval fruits of bright orange color is four centimeters, not more, and in section — only two!
China is considered the birthplace of kumquats (southern provinces, Guangzhou region), where several species of these citrus fruits are grown, and their common name «kumquat» comes from the South China dialect and means «golden orange». Fortunela — a low tree with beautiful glossy foliage and incredibly fragrant flowers. These miniature trees are perfectly adapted for apartment life (they have enough of an ordinary flowerpot).
And of course for the culinary life.
Unlike other citrus fruits, kumquats are not cleaned, but eaten whole, because their skin is thin, delicate and sweet (albeit slightly bitter), but the pulp is acidic and not very juicy.
The beneficial properties of kumquat have long been proven and generally recognized.
Since ancient times, folk healers of the East have used it to treat various diseases: this fetus has good antibacterial properties.
Inhabitants of Asian countries often put kumquat peel next to fire: cough and cold are treated by inhalation of the skin fumes. Kumquat contains a large amount of furakumarin, which has a strong antifungal activity, so the fruit is often used to treat fungal diseases.
Like other citrus crops, kumquat can activate the gastrointestinal tract, reduce cholesterol in the blood, help fight depression, overwork and apathy, and relieve nervous tension. Kumquat, among other things, has immunostimulating properties and helps the body adapt to adverse environmental conditions.
In addition, in the East, the fruits of kumquat are very popular as a means of relieving the hangover syndrome: in the morning after an evening feast it is enough to eat only a couple of these amazing fruits — and there will be no sign of a hangover.
Currently, the kumquat has spread to almost all countries with a subtropical climate.
It is grown in China, Japan, South and Southeast Asia, Israel, the USA (in the state of Florida), in the south of Europe (in Greece), in Africa, Australia, and even in the south of Russia (in the Krasnodar Territory) and in Georgia .
So the first thing worth paying attention to when buying a kumquat is where it came from to the store or to the market.
Occurs in nature six varieties of kumquat, differing in fruit shape:
- hong kong kumquat(Fortunella hindsii) — the fruit is round, the smallest of all and with the most delicious pulp;
- Malay Kumquat(Fortunella polyandra) — the fruit is round, 2-3 cm wide;
- Marumi Kumquat, the same morgan kumquat(Fortunella japonica) — the fruit is round, flattened or oval;
- nagami kumquat (Fortunella margarita) — the fruit is oval; it has several varieties, for example, bred in 1965 nordmann(Nordmann Seedless) or withdrawn in 1986 petroleum kumquat(Centennial variegated kumquat), the fruits of which are unripe striped;
- Maeve Kumquat(Fortunella crassifolia), which is considered to be a natural hybrid between the Nagami and Marumi kumquats — with large (up to 4 cm in diameter) fruits more often of a round shape;
- Fukushi Kumquat, the same jiangsu kumquat(Fortunella obovata) — fruits are larger (up to 5 cm in diameter) than other varieties, oval or pear-shaped.
Kumquat often forms hybrids (natural and artificial) with other types of citrus fruits, so in many cases it is impossible to say for sure whether the product is pure or hybridized.
Are known kumquat hybrids with other citrus fruits:
- Ichangquat(Citrus ichangensis x Fortunella sp.) — lemon ichan and kumquat
- Calamondin(Citrus reticulata x Fortunella margarita) — Mandarin and Nagami Kumquat
- cumandarin(Citrus reticulata x Fortunella sp.) — Mandarin and Kumquat
- limequat(Citrus aurantiifolia x Fortunella sp.) — lime and kumquat
- lemonquat(Citrus limon x Fortunella sp.) — lemon and kumquat
- orangeback(Citrus unshiu x (F. japonica x F. margarita)) — Mandarin Unshiu and Kumquat
- citranjquat((C. sinensis x P. trifoliata) x Fortunella sp.) — citrange (a hybrid of orange and citrus trifoliata, also known as poncirus three-leaf) and kumquat
- citrumquat(Poncirus trifoliata x Fortunella sp.) — Trifoliata (poncirus three-leafed) and kumquat
- doll, Kucle ((C. deliciosa x C. salicifolia) x Fortunella margarita) — Clementine (a combination of mandarin and orange) and naga kumquat
- prosimkvat, Procimequat((C. aurantiifolia x Fortunella sp.) X Fortunella hindsii) — limequat and hong kong kumquat
Unlike other citrus fruits, kumquats are not cleaned, but eaten whole, because their skin is thin, tender and sweet, but the flesh is acidic and not very juicy.
However, kumquats are not only good raw.
They make excellent candied fruits, jams and preserves, make excellent syrups, tinctures and liqueurs from kumquats.
But this, of course, is not all: delicious sauces for pork and chicken come out of kumquats, and if you add a handful of kumquats to mutton, you will have a dish that is unique in taste.
Caramelized kumquats can be mixed with rice and stuffed with a duck.
Kumquat circles are also well placed in fruit salads and even cocktails: they are not only decorative, but also pleasantly flavored with drinks and desserts.
And from the «golden oranges» it turns out refreshing ice cream and tonic sorbet, especially if you add some champagne to it.
Kumquat is good as a gift: ladies can be presented with a jar of golden jam, and men can get kumquats in cognac.
The recipe for alcohol-free fruit is simple: boil kumquats in sugar syrup in just three minutes, fill cans with them, and pour brandy (1: 1) into the remaining syrup, stir and pour the fruit.
Depending on the variety, kumquat fruits ripen from late fall to late winter.
They remain on the tree for several months, so that fresh kumquats of some varieties can be harvested up to March.
In the Southern Hemisphere, the kumquat season coincides with our summer and autumn: fruits can be picked from June to October.
The rind of the fruit should be shiny, smooth, without damage.
Fruits should have a smooth color.
The rind is tasty in all species of kumquat (see above), and as for the flesh, it is believed that it is the most delicious in Hong Kong kumquat.
Kumquat can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 3 weeks.
Unlike other citrus fruits, kumquats are not cleaned, but eaten whole, because their skin is thin.
Kumquat, kinkan, fortunella, Chinese mandarins are all names of the same fruits,.