How to cook beans: different types of beans, different types of beans
Red beans — beans medium sized with a dark red shell.
It is also called “kidney”, kidney (kidney beans) — with its shape, it really resembles a kidney.
Red beans can not be germinated — in raw beans contain toxic substances. Before cooking, they should be soaked for at least 8 hours, drained and then cook until ready: 50–60 minutes.
Red beans are often used in Creole and Mexican cuisine, particularly chili con carne.
Another Central and South American favorite is black beans.
These are small beans with a black shell and a creamy-white inside, slightly sweet, mealy and crumbly to the taste. They need to soak for 6-7 hours, and then cook for 1 hour.
Prepare them with lots of onions, garlic and cayenne pepper, or cook them from the famous Mexican black bean soup with corned beef.
Lima beans, or Lim, come from the Andes.
It has large flat beans of a “kidney” shape, most often white, but they are black, red, orange and spotty. For a pleasant oily taste, it is also called “oil” (butter) and for some reason Madagascar. Lima beans need to be soaked for a long time — at least 12 hours, and then cook for at least 1 hour.
Lima beans are very good in thick tomato soups with lots of dried herbs.
Baby lima beans It is recommended to soak for only a couple of hours.
Black Eye Beans — One of the species of cow peas, cowpea. It has medium-sized white beans with a black peephole, with a very fresh taste. It is most popular in Africa, where it came from, as well as in the south of the United States and in Persia.
It is soaked for 6–7 hours and boiled for 30–40 minutes.
From this bean in the South American states on New Year’s Day they make a dish called “Jumping John” (Hoppin ’John): the beans are mixed with pork, fried onions, garlic, tomatoes and rice, seasoned with thyme and basil.
This bean for Americans symbolizes monetary prosperity.
Motley — the most common beans in the world.
She comes in different varieties.
Pinto — beans of medium size, oval-shaped, pink-brown, in a speck, which is «washed out» when cooked. Cranberry and borlotti — also in a pinkish-red spot, but the background is creamy, and the taste is more delicate. All these varieties need to be soaked for 8–10 hours and cook for an hour and a half.
It is most often eaten whole in soups or roasted, mashed in a mash and roasted again with spices.
White beans (its several varieties) — medium-sized beans. They have a neutral taste, creamy texture — this is a universal bean, which they love to use in Mediterranean cuisine.
In Italy, cannellini beans, long and thin beans, are mashed and added to thick potato soups with greens.
Cannellini put in pasta e fagioli — pasta with beans.
White beans are soaked for at least 8 hours, and cooked from 40 minutes to 1.5 hours.
Adzuki (it’s angular beans) — small oval beans in a red-brown shell with a white stripe. Their homeland is China, and thanks to the sweetish taste in Asia, desserts are made of them, first soaking for 3-4 hours, and then boiling with sugar for half an hour.
In Japan, adzuki with rice is a traditional New Year’s treat.
Sometimes sold as ready-made pasta.
Other types of beans
Dolichos beans with white “scallops” are grown in the subtropics of Africa and Asia and used in several Asian and Latin-American cuisines combined with rice and meat — they are very tender, but they are not boiled soft.
Dolikhos need to soak for 4-5 hours and cook for about an hour.
Lentils come from the legume family, its birthplace is South-West Asia.
Brown lentils — the most common. In Europe and North America, winter soups are made from it, adding vegetables and herbs to it.
It needs to be soaked for 4 hours, and then cook for 30–40 minutes, trying not to digest.
Green lentils — it is unripe brown, it can be not soaked, it cooks for about 20 minutes.
Quickest preparing red (red) lentils, taken out of the shell — only 10–12 minutes.
In the process of cooking, it loses its bright color and in an instant turns into porridge, so it is better to follow it and slightly undercook.
Black Beluga Lentils — the smallest. They called it so for the fact that ready-made lentils glitter, resembling beluga caviar. It is very tasty by itself and cooked in 20 minutes, without soaking.
From it you can make a stew with fennel, shallot and thyme, and put cold in a salad.
In India, lentils are consumed mostly peeled and split, in the form of gave: red, yellow or green, mash it. The most common — gave urad: black lentils, when purified, it is yellow.
Such mashed potatoes make very tasty vegetarian hamburgers, and you can make curry from uncooked dal by adding onion, tomato and spinach besides spices.
Peas — yellow and green — grows in almost all continents. Popular worldwide pea soup is obtained from the mature seeds of shelling varieties, which naturally dried on the field, and the unripe seeds — mostly non-melodious, brain varieties — are frozen and preserved.
Whole peas are soaked for 10 hours and boiled for 1–1.5 hours, and split ones — for 30 minutes.
Mash, or golden beans, or mung dal — tiny peas with thick skinned from India can be green, brown or black.
Inside are soft, sweetish seeds of golden yellow color.
Mash is sold whole, peeled, or crushed. It is not necessary to soak chipped mash — it does not cook for long: 20–30 minutes. And the whole can be soaked for a short time so that it can boil faster, but it is already cooked from 40 minutes to 1 hour.
The fact that in supermarkets is often called «soy sprouts», in fact, almost always sprouted mash.
It, unlike soy sprouts, can be eaten raw.
Chickpea, he is Spanish, or Turkish, or lamb peas, or garbanz, — one of the most common legumes in the world. Its seeds are similar to peas — a light beige color, with a pointed tip.
The chickpea is cooked for a long time: first, it needs to be soaked for at least 12 hours, and then cook for about 2 hours, trying not to overcook — unless you want to make mashed potatoes out of it. Chickpea puree is the basis of the popular Arabic hummus snack. From it, they make another snack, a hot one — falafel.
Sprouted chickpeas — a great, very satisfying, slightly bitter snack or additive to the salad.
For 4 thousand years soy It was one of the staple foods in China, but it became widespread in the West only in the 1960s. Soybeans do not contain cholesterol, but they contain a lot of nutrients, including a large amount of easily digestible protein. But at the same time it contains the so-called inhibitors, which prevent the absorption of vital amino acids.
To destroy them, soy need to properly cook. First, the beans are soaked for at least 12 hours, then they are drained, washed, poured with fresh water and brought to a boil.
The first hour they should boil violently, and the next 2–3 hours should be boiled over low heat.
Beans — the oldest product that arrived in Europe from America (most likely from Argentina) on the ships of Christopher Columbus. Nowadays, hundreds of varieties of the legume family — namely, beans — are growing on all continents.
Main producers: India, Brazil, Mexico and China.
In these countries, beans are one of the main components of the menu.
And this is understandable: in the mature seeds of beans, there is a lot of protein, on average, 24–26%.
And this protein is very close in composition to the animal — it is only easier to digest.