Classic cheese fondue appeared in Switzerland around the 18th century. In those days, it was customary to harvest cheese and bread for the winter.
After a few months, the cheese became stony, and the Swiss thought up to heat it on fire in wine. With the onset of cold weather, the whole family gathered in the evening at the pot with a hot meal.
Thus was born the famous Swiss fondue.
It is prepared from at least two varieties of cheese — Gruyera and Emmental, which melt in white wine with a small amount of flour and serve to the table in a traditional kettle of heavy clay or enamelled iron.
In such a pot — it is called caquelon — it is evenly distributed and kept warm.
Fondue is first cooked on the stove over low heat to prevent the cheese from burning.
In the cheese fondue, you certainly need to add a little corn or potato starch or flour — this will not allow it to stratify.
And put lemon juice in wine — under the action of acid the cheese will melt faster.
Stir boiling wine should not circular, and zigzag movements — this will also melt the cheese better.
Then the pot of fondue is transferred to the middle of the table and set on a spirit lamp.
Finally, the meal begins. Before each guest they put a special plate — a partitioned dish and put a fork with a long handle.
He puts a cube of bread on it, then puts it in cheese and eats it.
The forks are also special: they have fireproof handles, and each has a colored mark so that the guest can easily distinguish his plug.
Each Swiss canton has its own traditional fondue recipe, which uses local cheeses and wines. In Friborg, for example, Gruyère and Vasierin cheeses are combined, and wine and cherry brandy — kirsch — are added if the cheese has not fully matured. In Geneva, fondue is made from three varieties of cheese and put morels in it.
There is also a rustic fondue — Swiss raclette: melted cheese of different varieties served with boiled potatoes and pickled red onions.
Hot tea, kirsch, schnapps or dry wine are available for cheese fondue.
If you are an opponent of alcoholic drinks, pour grape juice into glasses.
Meat fondue washed down with red, white and rosé wines, as well as chilled beer.
Delicate fondue is made from dolchelatte blue cheese, if you add an equal portion of Gruyere to it. And if you want to make a thick fondue from blue cheese, take Gorgonzola, Roquefort or Bleu d’Overn.
It’s nice to add a bit of brandy too.
The Italians did not want to fall behind the Swiss and came up with fondutta — from the fountainin and egg yolks.
The Germans also have a similar dish — kaasdoop — cheese sauce.
Subsequently, other types of fondue were invented, which, in fact, are not, since nothing melts in them: in Burgundy (in hot vegetable oil) and in Chinese (in hot broth).
Oil fondue appeared a couple of centuries ago at the monastery vineyards of Burgundy.
When the grapes ripened, it had to be quickly harvested, and there was not enough time for lunch.
Then one lazy monk had the idea to heat the oil and put the meat taken from the supervisor’s personal reserves into it.
The Swiss developed this idea and, out of respect for the Burgundian grape-pickers, called the dish "fondue bourguignon". It is made from lean soft steak cubes, which are fried in vegetable oil, and then eaten with various sauces. In the same way you can cook poultry and other types of meat.
Salads and warm bread with an appetizing crispy crust are traditionally served with this fondue.
On a serving plate, the guests are laid out in 175-225 g of low-fat filet of beef, that is, approximately two entrekto, cut into 2-cm cubes. Sauces and seasonings are placed either in portioned bowls or in one large bowl.
The oil is heated on the stove, and then transfer the fondue to the table and set it over the spirit lamp.
Forks quickly heat up, so meat fried in oil should be removed from them in order not to burn yourself.
Many years ago, a Swiss man traveling around China was served a dish called "Chrysanthemum" — strips of meat cooked in broth.
Returning home, he told about it. "Chinese fondue".
In fact, the so-called Chinese fondue in the XIV century was brought to the Far East by the Mongols.
This is just one of the variants of the Mongolian way of cooking: raw foods are boiled in boiling broth.
The Chinese replaced the Mongolian favorite mutton with seafood, marinated chicken, small Chinese dumplings (Dim Sum) and vegetables.
They are dipped in broth, from where they are caught by miniature wire baskets. Chopped fresh vegetables are offered to Chinese fondue: Chinese cabbage, spinach and onions, green bean puree and rice vermicelli. Sauces for it are made on the basis of soy, ginger and sesame oil.
Fondue salads are most often made from leafy vegetables.
For example, a salad of fine green beans on a substrate of arugula and chopped basil with a light vinegar dressing. Or — chopped fennel, celery and sweet pepper on a pillow of arugula, cress or lettuce leaves.
Beef is also served with a salad of tomatoes, sprinkled with finely chopped red onions, baked potatoes with sour cream or new potatoes sprinkled with olive oil and sprinkled with chives.
Modern fondue was born in 1956, when the chef of a New York restaurant "Swiss chalet" Konrad Egli came up with frying meat cubes in hot vegetable oil. Today, meat, fish, and vegetable fondues are fried in sunflower or corn oil at a temperature of 180–200 ° C, half filling the fondue holder with it.
You can add a little olive, sesame or peanut oil. These types of fondue are also cooked in boiling broth.
Meat and fish must be fresh or completely thawed (if they were frozen before).
The slices are not cut very large, otherwise the fondue will have to be cooked for a long time.
In the 70s of the twentieth century, a variety of dessert fondue became popular. The same Egli invented chocolate in 1964: ripe fruit was put into melted chocolate: bananas, strawberries and tangerines, and sometimes biscuit pieces.
Chocolate fondue is made from bitter chocolate or white mixed with cream.
There are also caramel, coconut and many other sweet types of this dish. Warm thick fruit fondue with the addition of liquor is incredibly tasty with mini cupcakes or brioche.
Some fruits, such as grapes and apples, can be dipped in both sweet and savory fondue.
Seasonal fruits and berries — strawberries, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, as well as exotic fruits — figs, pineapple, papaya, mango, carambola and lychee are selected for sweet ones. Bananas and citrus fruits are also good for them all year round.
Sweet sparkling wine, peach, orange and coffee liqueurs are served to dessert fondue.
In sweet fondue there is a lot of sugar, so the fire under the fondue should be low, and the syrup should be stirred often. Fondue oil, heated too much, can ignite.
Do not try to fill it with water, just carefully cover the pot with a lid or a plate to block the air intake.
The product you are going to cook must be dry so that the oil does not splash.