In spacious enclosures enclosures ecofarm Mustard glade graze now meat bulls, and large wooden houses, once adapted for pigs, turned into sheepfolds. From pigs, which in former times was famous for the eco-farm, literally nothing left. Metamorphosis occurred with Mustard glade, sad because it irrefutably indicates the precarious position of Russian farming.
And at the same time — “the smoking-room is alive”: the farm was revived and began its history anew.
Huge wooden buildings Mustard glade At one time, they were built by a visiting German architect for a wide variety of needs — from a hotel for ecotourism lovers to an eco-restaurant.
All this as it was not, and no.
For ekonturizma is not the time.
Time to survive.
Mustard glade — favorite child Alexander Brodovsky, successful businessman, co-owner of clothing brand Woolstreet. The ecofarm has been operating in the Tula region for ten years and has long been known for pork and various sausages.
It has been five years since the author of this text observed in the kitchen Deli for cutting up a piglet from Mustard glade, and then described what is happening in the magazine and on the website.
Alexander, what happened to your pigs? A detailed answer to this question was already received on the way from Moscow to the Tula region.
Sitting at the wheel of the car, the farmer shared the story of the lost herd.
“I aimed at breeding a new breed of pigs,” says Alexander. Initially, the pigs lived without a roof over their heads, freely grazed around the farm and ate acorns and roots, which they were looking for themselves, as well as useful food — grain, larvae, worms. Such a life shaped not only the quality of the meat, but also the breeding characteristics of the herd.
The animals were unpretentious, hardened, frost-resistant, with good immunity, perfectly working digestion and strong maternal instinct.
At one time, only 10 pigs were bribed to the existing herd (collected from pigs of various breeds gradually mixing with each other) — and this experience was considered unsuccessful: “fresh blood” strongly lost to “native” pigs in terms of immunity and instinct.
The problems began in March 2013.
AT Mustard glade arrived representative of the Rosselkhoznadzor and veterinary services.
They gave an order to urgently build indoor premises: it is unbecoming for pigs to live on the street.
Thus, the idea of free grazing was scattered: in a short time all the pigs were transferred under the roof.
For pigs, all three large premises, built a few years before by an architect from Germany, were adapted. At one time, he proposed a multifunctional construction of buildings — the form is one (gable cover, high ceilings, log beams), and the “filling” was assumed to be different. Thanks to the original design, the buildings were easily transformed into covered pig houses.
Around the barriers were installed; pigs could go out through specially equipped doors, and then come back. Of course, the pigs lost their acorns, roots, as well as sand, which they passed in large quantities through themselves while living in the fresh air. However, imitating the natural diet, they continued to mix clay and small pebbles into the food.
Still, the pigs still had the sun, air, natural rain, and contact with the earth.
Since 2013, the farm has begun regular inspections of various veterinary services for compliance with all kinds of legal regulations. Commissions came one after another.
Pigs, aviaries, animals, meat workshop, equipment, finished meat products were checked; found out how the methods of keeping and slaughtering pigs comply with Russian standards; regularly and persistently searched for any violations.
In May 2014, these hikes led to a short-term closure of the farm. Then another commission found a box with meat, which stood 10 cm from the wall (and not half a meter, as prescribed by the rules).
The response of the sanitary service was tough: all production was frozen for a month.
This measure, by the way, caused the termination of contracts with Globe Gourmet and Green Crossing.
In June, the farm opened again. As it turned out, not for long. In July, two pigs died on the farm.
Who of the workers was to blame for their death — the story is dark.
But they died very “on time”, just at the time of the most fierce sanitary checks, so that it is hard to believe in coincidence. July 24, 2014 received an order to destroy all pigs in Mustard glade. “Tula said to blame on the plague,” so, in full voice, the instructions from “above” were voiced by the representatives of the controlling authorities on the farm. Entry and exit from the farm was prohibited.
The pigs were put to sleep by injection, their corpses burned.
Only a handful of ashes remained from the unique herd.
They did not touch only the buildings built by the German architect — apparently, they liked someone.
“African plague, mad cow disease, bird flu are all convenient ways to destroy small local producers,” says Alexander Brodovsky. — Farming is systematically crowded for the big meat production.
This process is taking place not only in Russia, but also in Germany: everywhere small farmers are being pushed out of the market for the sake of large corporations.
The question is whether all these bacteria have not been bred in the laboratories for a specific order. ”
The land also seems attractive Mustard glade — 300 km from Moscow, a circle of springs, springs, streams, near the Upa and Oka rivers, the beaver kingdom.
Who needs to destroy the established production of eco-wine can only guess, and Alexander Brodovsky, if he knows, will not say.
And what now, again? Exactly. But no more pigs.
At the pig-breeding point, forever.
It turns out that the beef on the eco farm was practically from the very beginning. “We kept meat gobies for a long time,” says the owner. Mustard glade. — But attention was focused primarily on pork. We engaged in pigs consistently, we specially promoted pork, it was the main part of our work. Until recently, beef was used only as an additive to sausage (there were certain types of sausages, the recipe of which envisaged the use of beef), chilies were also made from it, and minced into cutlets.
However, to be perfectly accurate, it was originally supposed to do steaks.
But in the end, the pigs were so fascinating to us that they took all our attention and subdued all other directions. Accordingly, the cows — due to the unpretentiousness of the purchased breed — were relegated to the background.
It is not right.
And now, in the first months of the aiming work with the bulls, we were able to correct these old sins. ”
In 2014, a friend and consultant of Alexander Brodovsky, a German, came to the farm again. Sven Lindauer. He shared the right recipes, which were immediately adopted.
Together with him, the farm specialists were more intently concerned with the problems of slaughtering, cutting and harvesting beef.
The word «slaughter» for an ignorant person in farmer’s affairs sounds, perhaps, too brutal.
However, this process determines a lot in the quality of meat products.
As in the case of pigs, for bulls there are their own principles of stressless slaughter, which allow not to frighten an animal in vain.
“We kill the animal with a shot,” says Alexander. — For gobies, this is a stressless face. The animal stands on the field among its fellows, a shepherd comes up to him and kills him with a gun with a direct shot to the forehead.
The animal instantly falls. The remaining bulls are not afraid: if the shepherd-shooter behaves correctly, they do not pay attention to what is happening at all and continue to peacefully tweak the grass.
The shepherd comes to the field on a tractor (animals are not afraid of the tractor, because they regularly bring food on the tractor, these are always positive associations); he must be very accurate and calm at the same time; after the shot, blood immediately descends, then the same tractor quietly takes away the carcass.
All this, I repeat, in the eyes of other animals, which — such is the psychology of the animal — relate to what is happening with complete indifference and absolutely do not understand what is happening.
With pigs, this would never have happened: a pig is much more sensitive and fearful, she feels any hint, you just think something bad — and she already trembles (for this reason, for stressless slaughter, the pig is first stunned by current and immediately, until she recovers , quickly cut) «.
If we recall the behavior of the animal in the slaughterhouse (where it is under tremendous stress due to transportation, temperature, tile floor, the whole of the unusual situation, etc.), stressless slaughter in the field looks much more humane.
In addition, if the face is stressful, the meat will be very watery. “Butchers feel it right away,” says Alexander. — Quality depends on it. Of course, we will not reject meat, which, according to our concepts, is derived from an incorrectly slaughtered goby. But we will try more to prevent such blunders.
Because we can not meat "to fix", renew using chemistry.
The meat itself must be of high quality. ”
In our country, stressless slaughter does not cause objections of the controlling authorities, although in Germany this method had very serious opponents at one time — environmentalists and animal advocates. “One farmer, Mr. Mayer, laid in Germany half his life, twenty-five years, on the courts with officials, proving the humanity of a besstressovogo slaughter in the field,” says Alexander. “And only four years ago, he got permission for him.” He proved that for meat quality it is many times better than slaughtering at the slaughterhouse, that the stress of an animal when slaughtering in the field decreases many times. This, if I may say so, is the most stressless way of slaughtering cows today.
By the way, in Austria this method has always been resolved and never raised any objections. ”
The author of this text was not present at the face. The animal, of course, is not slaughtered when, but in terms of specific orders.
However, looking at bulls peacefully grazing in large aviaries and keeping in mind the colorful story of a farmer, it is easy to imagine how this happens.
It was the end of winter — the very beginning of spring.
The temperature is below zero. Snow cover in enclosures is interspersed with heaps of haylage.
Gobies graze in the open.
There are no cowsheds on the farm at all, bullies all year round: in winter and early spring — in spacious enclosures, in summer — on grazing, without fences, while the territory of future enclosures is prepared for the next winter.
Of course, not all breeds of bulls withstand the Russian winter. On the farm Brodovsky graze gobies galloway (Galloway), who do not care for frosts. “This breed — the gallows — was once in fashion in Germany in the 1980s,” says Alexander. — Then the newly-minted farmers (dentists, lawyers, other wealthy people) began to buy farms for themselves, raise livestock, went to the village. And since they were not able to do so much, this breed itself became the most popular and, therefore, very expensive, because it is so unpretentious that it is almost impossible to make mistakes with these bulls.
Then, when there was an outbreak of mad cow disease, fashion came to naught, and the gallows became just one of the actively used breeds. However, the interest of amateurs to it is still great. I am among them.
At one time we found the Gallowian gobies in the north of Austria, on the border with the Czech Republic; it was a Canadian version of the Gallows, they are slightly larger than the classic Scottish. It was January, it was -12 outside, and they grazed in the open air, and in the cold they got together, pressed themselves together and warmed themselves.
As it turned out, nothing bad happens to them at -20. ”
Already in the course of working with the Gallium, it turned out that Russian frosts were even more preferable for them than the wet weather of Scotland (where the Gallows came from). Cows without any problems can calve directly on the straw bedding-haylage.
Only in calves in the cold you need to be treated more closely — mothers can not watch them. Interestingly, in the summer on the farm determine the place where the cows prefer to lie down, and that is where straw is poured.
Inside the straw bedding there is a slight fermentation — in the winter for cows this is an additional heating.
Now owner Mustard glade decided to cross the Galloway bulls with the popular meat breed in Russia Aberdeen Angus. The fact is that it has become difficult to import rare Gallovean bulls, and they do not want to practice artificial insemination on the farm. Meanwhile, the gallows interbreed well with Aberdeen-Angus: these breeds are very similar, only the Angus is slightly higher and the wool is not as curly as that of the Galloway.
As a result, the purest Angus bulls should turn out — in three years their breed should completely oust the Galloway.
Gobies on a farm slaughtered in 21 months.
Three months before slaughter, they begin to actively feed them with flour from grain.
As is known, grain fattening is traditionally used for the production of marbled beef: thanks to the grain, the fatty layers in meat seriously increase, which radically changes its taste.
Now the farm has two pickers, dividers and three workers in the sausage shop.
The transition from pork to beef radically changed all the work with gobies. There were new tasks not only in terms of breeding, grazing, fattening and slaughtering gobies, but also in cutting carcasses and the production of meat products.
For example, the farm began to produce meat on steaks.
This is seasoned meat: to get steaks of the desired quality, cuts are aged for 21 days in a wet way, that is, in a vacuum.
During this period, the meat is sufficiently fermented.
Alexander Brodovsky claims that 21 days for fermentation is quite enough (and the long periods cultivated by some foreign producers are cunning, and they are associated not so much with improving meat quality as with the duration of the sea transportation of meat from one hemisphere to the other).
Steak production of beef, of course, is not limited. No less important part of the job Mustard glade, as before, — sausages, and the methods of processing meat in this case are completely different. “For two years, earlier with pigs, now in terms of beef, we only make sausages from fresh meat, without aging,” says Alexander. — Moreover: sausage meat is done within two hours from the moment of slaughter.
If we did not have time to make sausage meat within two hours after the slaughter of the animal, then we are nobody. The properties of meat require us to be quick. The fact is that within two hours after the slaughter the muscles have a binding property, it has a stickiness that keeps the stuffing.
To taste it is also different, it is more tender, more sensitive.
And the butchers with the pair of meat work harder. Fresh meat — it moves like a jelly, it has not yet grabbed, has not taken shape. But sausages always, at all times were made on the day of slaughter, instantly, this is a condition of quality.
And we are back to this.
Only small farms can afford it. ”
We go into one of the mentioned large multifunctional buildings of the eco-farm — in the meat workshop.
Alexander demonstrates the cold and hot zones — respectively, for cutting carcasses and the production of meat products.
Cow gives 60 kg of sausages. They slaughtered one animal (they were slaughtered one at a time, this is not a continuous production) — and from one carcass the manual production of a whole line of meat products immediately begins. “And we will never allow steak meat to sausage. If, for example, we do not sell it — it could go to jelly.
But we will sell. We will not lose anything.
The cow must give everything to the last vein. Up to the skin, which we resell to the production of the corresponding profile. » For example, bones: they go not only to brawn, on the farm they prepare bone meal, which is ground with the help of a special machine; She goes to fertilizer and feed for chickens.
Alexander Brodovsky is proud of this product: in Germany, he says, bones of gobies are often not used at all.
In the hot zone, sausages are molded, poured into a casing, dried slightly in a drying cabinet, then cooked and cooled in a refrigerator. In special cabinets, meat delicacies are slowly (very slowly) smoked and smoked. Cuts for steak are waiting for packaging a day, and then packed in a vacuum for 21 days: the meat for the steak should cool down well; warm it can not be packed.
Trimming goes to burgers: A good burger should contain 10% fat.
Seasonings for sausages in the hot zone, they mix by their own recipe. “This is also manual labor, we are adhering to the philosophy of large-scale production, which involves the use of ready-made spice mixtures,” explains Alexander. And then he says that many ingredients for seasoning are imported from Germany, that only sea salt is used, and from “E” horror stories on the farm, only E250 is recognized — nitrite salt, to preserve color.
However, it is not in the liver sausage, in sausages for grilling, where grayish, pate color is prescribed by tradition.
We go into the sheepfold. It contains lambs and little kids, which are bred only for meat. Now on the farm you can buy hunting lamb sausages («Andorran»), lamb salami, grilled lamb sausages.
This, of course, in addition to the six main cuts of lamb.
An interesting story turned out with goat meat.
The owner of the farm agreed with the partners from the goat farms, who for a relatively small amount of money are sold from the hands of the little goats.
The fact is that most goat farms specialize in goat milk and its products — from cheese to yogurt.
Not many people are ready to engage in goat meat.
Meanwhile, in Moscow there are quite a few people who are ready to give quite a lot of money for a goat carcass — in Russia it is a rare product.
Accordingly, goat meat does not go to any processing, nor to any sausages. “It’s a pity to let the goat on the sausage, goat meat is a gold mine,” says Alexander.
Now the production of goat meat, lamb and lamb sausages on the farm is only developing.
This is a new product for Alexander Brodovsky. Farmers get a new experience, master new methods of meat production, conquer a new consumer.
Life goes on.