Dumplings, manti, khinkali, dim sum: so different and similar
It is likely that the idea of combining dough with meat came to mind of different nations independently of each other, but the most popular is the version that the Chinese have taught the world to make dumplings.
Beginning of all beginnings
In China, dumplings have been known since time immemorial.
Bao Tzu, from which Mongolian bouuz may have descended, more like lush pies.
They are cooked exclusively steamed and filled with a variety of fillings — usually with bean or meat, for example, from minced pork with soy sauce, onion and rice flour.
The Chinese love and jiao tzu: sometimes they are stuffed only with finely chopped zucchini, wild garlic or salad cabbage, sometimes with pork with the addition of various vegetables. | In general, the Chinese rarely use purely minced meat — they put onions, sea cucumbers, mushrooms, and shrimps.
Shui Yao — from puff pastry with pork and onions — a bit like our Siberian. Very popular won ton — small dumplings with the most varied, usually spicy, stuffing.
They are boiled in boiling water, put in a bowl and poured with broth cooked with aromatic herbs and soy sauce, add a little rice vodka, an infusion of ginger root and thinly sliced pieces of chicken, pork or vegetables.
In Canton are common dim sum — fried or steamed dumplings with minced meat, vegetables, seafood.
In the West, they have long been the main dish of any Chinese restaurant.
However, it is not easy for a European to decide which dim sum to order, it is about two thousand in the classic Cantonese cuisine.
Journey on a geographical map
From the Chinese dumpling art penetrated into Central Asia and the Caucasus.
Traditional dish of Iran and Azerbaijan dyushpara — These are tiny triangular ravioli with ground mutton, generously flavored with onion, garlic, mint, basil, pepper and barberry.
The dough for them is rolled out very thinly, and the dushbara is boiled in two steps — first in steep salted boiling water until half cooked, and then in a very strong fat broth, with which it is served, seasoned with mint and garlic.
Azerbaijanis are also preparing kyrzu — small dough dumplings, stuffed with sautéed minced meat. When serving, they are sprinkled with cinnamon and sprinkled with sour milk. Popular in Georgia Khinkali.
Cool dough is rolled into circles with a diameter of 10 cm and a thickness of 2 mm. Minced lamb or beef with pork (4: 1) is seasoned with onions, black and red pepper, garlic, salt and chopped greens, spread on circles of dough and, having gathered the edges with folds, give the product a pear-shaped shape. To make the filling juicy, add a little meat broth.
At the same time, meat for khinkali is not passed through a meat grinder, but chopped with a knife.
Buryats eat with pleasure poses, also very similar to manti, but without broth and sauce.
Mari dumplings subcategory have a crescent shape.
Once they were made with hare or badger meat, and now they are stuffed with ordinary beef.
Kalmyks are famous for their dish berg — stuffed with beef, bacon and green onions.
We all know very well manti — a typical dish of Kazakh and Central Asian cuisine.
Minced meat is made of finely chopped lamb with lots of fried onion, black pepper, cumin, salt and small pieces of lamb fat. Boiled peas or fresh herbs are sometimes added to the filling; Kazakhs also cook manti with pumpkin and curd. The dough should be steeper than the dumplings, and if you use yeast, manti will be more voluminous and juicier.
Prepare them for a couple of 40–45 minutes in a special multi-tiered saucepan — manti kaskane or on a grid installed above a kettle with boiling broth.
When serving, they are poured with broth with vinegar, butter and pepper, as well as sour milk, sour cream or spicy tomato sauce with parsley.
In Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan can try chuchvara — small dumplings with chopped beef and onions, which, unlike the manti, are boiled in broth.
Turkmenistan is adored balyk-berek.
In principle, these are the same manty, only with fish stuffing: finely chopped fillets, seasoned with raw egg, onion, dill, parsley, salt, add a pinch of red pepper and cardamom and cook for a couple.
However, no matter how skillful oriental cooks may be, we prefer our siberian dumplings. Small, with pressed "ears", the ones that sculpt hundreds and immediately freeze. The dough for them is kneaded in very cold water, and crushed ice is put into the mince for juiciness.
In the filling is combined beef (45%), lamb (35%) and pork (20%).
However, today they also add bear meat or elk meat, add fish fillets to the meat; marrow dumplings are put in bone marrow.
Surprisingly, Russian dumplings are and lean — remember the old recipe Kundumov. Although their main feature is that right after the molding, Kundums are fried and then poured with broth, most often with mushroom, added sour cream and stewed.
The dough is kneaded from flour and eggs, with the addition of a small amount of milk or water and sometimes a teaspoon of vegetable oil. Earlier, residents of the Southern Urals (where, in fact, dumplings were brought from China) put eggs of bastards, bustards or quails into it, and Permian-Urals people put eggs of partridges.
Often, the finished dough is covered with a hot pan and set for half an hour.
These pelmeni are molded manually: for each one they thinly roll a small round cake, spread a teaspoon of filling, cover it with dough, press it lightly with a finger in the center — and the product takes the form of a plump crescent, the ends of which are easily joined.
In Siberia, prepared dumplings are placed on the boards, sprinkled with flour, and brought to frost.
When they are completely frozen, they are poured into clean linen bags and stored in the cold. Dumplings are boiled in small batches in boiling salted water (1 kg –4 l of water and 50 g of salt) with the addition of onions, bay leaf and peppercorns.
It is even better to cook them in bone meat broth or, boil it, dip in hot broth with butter.
Try also for 2-3 minutes to place the dumplings in boiling water, and then fry in a pan in butter or bake in the oven.
In Russia, dumplings are often served vinegar or sour cream; Siberians eat them with butter, black pepper and cold milk; and in Altai offer "shitty" — a mixture of tomatoes, horseradish, dried dill umbrella and pepper.
Cooking dumplings alone is pretty boring. The more people involved in this process, the more actively it moves. In Siberia and the Urals, the whole family is going to make dumplings, from young to old.
They make several thousand at once, freeze them in parts, as soon as they are ready, and pour them into canvas bags.
Stored in the cold.
In the West, they also like dumplings. The most famous Italian ravioli, although in reality this dish is one type of pasta.
In every region of Italy, ravioli are made with their own filling, but experts say that the best minced chicken with parmesan, spinach and parsley.
Ravioli is served with tomato sauce, olives and grated cheese, and if the filling is vegetable, with melted butter, sage and again grated cheese.
They are often fried as a side dish for broths or mashed soups.
Small Piedmontese crescent or ribbed edges are called anolotti — they are filled with minced meat, cottage cheese or spinach, and eaten with meat sauce.
To make a filling for Mantuan anjolini, lean beef is stewed in a mixture of olive and butter with onions, white wine, salamella and pancetta, minced, eggs, parmesan, pepper and nutmeg are added and left for twelve hours. Serve Agnolini in a bowl of broth, splashing a glass in it "Lambrusco" and sprinkled with grated cheese …
The pride of Bologna are considered tortellini — small round dumplings of unleavened dough with meat, ricotta or vegetables, mainly spinach.
They are watered with oil and eaten with pepper and stewed mushrooms, and can fill them with broth. Bologna claim that tortellini is shaped like a rose bud.
In Sweden you can try kroppkakor — a type of large ravioli stuffed with ground pork. Malta is cooking ravjul — ravioli with ricotta.
A similar dish with Halloumi cheese, mint and olives is served in Cypriot taverns.
There are also dumplings in Japan giosis, with shrimp or minced pork.
And in the United States are known pot stickers — stuffed with ground meat or seafood, chopped chilim nuts, onions and seasonings.
Nevertheless, in the menu of foreign restaurants you can find our relatives pelmeni — those "and meat, and fish, and fruit in pink champagne", about which he wrote another Gilyarovsky. Well, unless they do not slurp them more with wooden spoons …