Cream, ryazhenka, kefir, butter, yogurt, sour cream, cottage cheese — all this is made from milk!
Cream, ryazhenka, kefir, butter, yogurt, sour cream, cottage cheese, koumiss, yogurt, katyk, varenets, cheese — all this is made from milk.
Rather, from different milk — goat, cow, buffalo, mare, camel, sheep.
Initially, the processing of milk into dairy products was carried out primarily to increase its shelf life.
That is how sour cream and butter, cheese and curd appeared.
Technologies for producing these products are very diverse and varied: for example, conventional butter and Vologda butter, soft cheese like cheese and hard cheese like parmesan cheese, cream cheese and cream cheese, varenets and ryazhenka, yogurt and katyk are made using completely different technologies.
From a large family of dairy products emit dairy products — those that are produced by fermenting milk with various bacteria.
So, yogurt skachivaet Bulgarian wand, acidophilus — acidophilus stick, rennet cheeses — rennet, isolated from the stomach of calves, and cooking homemade yogurt and cottage cheese possibly due to the work of lactic acid lactococcus, which is constantly found in spontaneously sour milk.
The above fermented milk products are lactic fermentation products, that is, when bacteria break down milk sugar to form lactic acid, under the action of which the casein of milk coagulates (falls in the form of flakes).
You can ferment not only milk as such, but also baked milk (it will turn out boiled up) or cream (it will turn out sour cream).
Other type of fermented milk products — mixed lactic acid and alcohol fermentation products. In products of mixed fermentation, along with lactic acid, from milk sugar, alcohol, carbon dioxide, and volatile acids are formed, which also increase the digestibility of the product.
Such are, for example, koumiss, shubat and kefir.
The percentage of alcohol in such products may be very small, so it is rather difficult to attribute them to alcoholic beverages.
Without fermented milk fermentation do cream, butter, buttermilk, condensed milk.
Some adherents of healthy eating (vegans) eliminate all young foods from their diet.
Add that dairy products are not known in all kitchens; Representatives of some nations (all US Indians, Southeast Asian people, most Chinese, Eskimos, Black Africans, Australian aborigines, etc.) do not use milk and dairy products at all — and suffer from lactose intolerance (although do they suffer from this?) .
Here are just some of the dairy products:
- airan, the same tang — fermented milk drink of double lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation, which has been drunk in Central Asia for more than one thousand years; Ayran is made from cow or goat milk, water, salt, yeast and basil. It turns out a kind of liquid salty kefir; this drink is called by Armenians who cook it without basil;
- acidophilus — a very useful sour milk drink, the recipe for which (close to natural yogurt and matsoni) was developed by Soviet technologists; to prepare an acidophilus, you need an acidophilus bacillus — an exceptionally viable bacterium that does not break even under the action of gastric juices; having got into the human intestine, the wand forces out harmful microbes from there and inhibits the processes of decay;
- boiled up — An old fermented milk drink originally from Siberia; they cook it from baked milk, like ryazhenka, however they do it differently — the milk is roasted in the oven until it is evaporated by a third or even more, while the creamy foam is sometimes lowered to the bottom; then a leaven, such as sour cream, is added to the thickened, reddish mass; in Russia, varenets were usually served with tea;
- yogurt — a wonderful fermented milk product, but only if it is natural (unfortunately, under the name «yogurt» they often sell, God knows what); yogurt is fermented due to a special bacterium — «Bulgarian stick»; The main Russian apologist for yogurt as a healing product was, as you know, the great Ivan Mechnikov;
- kaymak — An analogue of sour cream, which was invented, perhaps in the Balkans, but is much more widespread — it is known, and in Central Asia, and in Azerbaijan, and in other places; milk is skimmed for quite a long time and transferred in layers to a clay plate, after which it is kept warm for several days; an unusually tender creamy mass is obtained, which is eaten as sour cream, added to the dough, used as soft cheese; in the Balkans, kaymak is often salted with salt; in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, kaymak is usually called ordinary sour cream;
- Katyk, he Gatykh — fermented milk drink of Turkic peoples; to make it, boiled milk is fermented with sour cream and put in a warm place for 8-10 hours; the next time the katyk is made with the help of the katyk of the previous ferment (and the older the fermented milk fungi, the stronger and tighter the new katyk is) in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan, katyk is often made from baked milk and with beets or cherries (they cook or bake beets in their skins, then peel and cut them into strips; it is easier to cherry, they simply remove the bones and crush the pulp; not fermented milk: about one half of a small beet goes on one liter or 2–3 cherries); It must be said that the Katyk has a lot in common with the Transcaucasian matsoni, with Russian sour milk and ryazhenka, and in some cases it is quite difficult to draw a clear border between these products (for example, the Azerbaijani Tatyana is very similar to the Armenian matsun and Georgian matsoni; ryazhenka);
- kefir — fermented milk drink of double fermentation (lactic acid and alcoholic), fermented with the help of so-called «kefir fungi» (this ferment is a symbiosis of a variety of microorganisms, lactic acid streptococci and sticks, acetic acid bacteria and yeast); kefir has a beneficial effect on the intestinal microflora: just a couple glasses of this drink a day prevents the development of intestinal infections and quickly cope with dysbiosis caused by, for example, antibiotics; kefir comes from the northern slope of the Caucasus Mountains;
- fresh cream — fermented milk product, very widespread in France and Belgium, very similar to thick sour cream; to prepare fresh cream in ordinary fat unpasteurized cream, culture of lactic bacteria is introduced; as a result, after 12 hours (or more) at room temperature, they acquire a thick and light, barely perishable, but not sour taste; unlike sour cream, fresh cream is well whipped and does not dye even at high temperatures, therefore it is widely used in various sauces, cakes, mousses and even in soups;
- koumiss — drink from bluish, sweet-tart milk of mares; according to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, the mare’s milk, brought down in wooden tubs, drank more Scythians; Kumis is loved by Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Bashkirs, Kalmyks, and not only because these peoples led a nomadic life just recently, and the existence of a steppe nomad is impossible without a horse; koumiss is incredibly useful: it has a great effect on metabolism, helps digestion, and restores strength;
- kurt, the same Khurut and court — solid fermented milk product, common among Turkic and Caucasian peoples, in a sense, an analogue of cheese; Kurt is made, for example, from Suzma, which is ground with salt until a homogeneous mass, and then rolled into small balls, which are covered with a cloth and dried in the sun for 3-4 days; a kind of kurt is made by drying soft cheese (for example, Adyghe);
- matsoni, the same matsun — fermented milk product, which has long been prepared in Armenia (matsun) and Georgia (matsoni); goat, buffalo, cow or sheep milk can be the basis for matsoni; the leaven is added to the barely cooled milk after boiling (most often it is the yogurt of the previous leaven, and for the first time you can use sour cream) and put in a warm place for about 6-8 hours; It turns out a thick sour drink, which is not only drunk, but also added to the dough for khachapuri, filled with hot meat and vegetable dishes; Often, matsoni is harvested for the future — dried, turning into a dry powder, which is stored for a very long time; dry yogurt can be used as a starter or, after diluting with water, to make a drink out of it again;
- buttermilk — low-fat cream, which is obtained by churning butter; in cooking, buttermilk is used in the same way as cream, and besides, it is made from dairy products and diet cheese; since there is little fat in buttermilk, it is valued by supporters of dietary nutrition
- sour milk — traditional Russian fermented milk product; they add leaven to the cooled boiled milk (this may be a crust of black bread, a spoon of sour cream, kefir, or yogurt of the previous day) and put it in a warm place for 10-12 hours; the transformation of milk into yogurt is possible without the addition of a special ferment due to the work of the lactic acid cocoa milk, which is constantly found in spontaneously sour milk; this drink is good only for a day, then it spoils; yogurt is not as sour as other sour-milk products;
- ryazhenka — A special kind of yogurt from a mixture of milk and cream; ryazhenka comes from Ukraine: they make it there in “glechikas” — special low clay pots; Milk and cream are boiled down at a high temperature, without boiling until it takes on the beautiful cream color of baked milk; then it is fermented: at home — just putting a little sour cream in it, and in the factory it uses streptococcus bacteria;
- condensed milk, which is made from pasteurized milk (most often cow’s milk): moisture is evaporated, sugar is added, and a thick nutrient mass is obtained; after eating one jar, you can not feel hunger all day; no less tasty boiled condensed milk — thick, beautiful golden brown;
- cream appear on the surface of fresh milk within a few hours after milking; for a long time this thick, oily layer was removed or poured (so, by the way, the word “cream” appeared) from the surface of milk and they knocked butter out of them; we are accustomed to add milk cream to coffee, they are indispensable in the preparation of sauces, cream soups, mouth-watering creams, cocktails, homemade ice cream; Russia produces cream of varying degrees of fat — 10, 20 and 35 percent;
- butter — a product that is prepared («whip») of cream, sour cream or milk, but butter is considered the best; in our country it was made from ancient times, it was not the cheapest product, and yet Russian cuisine could not do without it; in the XIX century, the whole world became famous Vologda oil (admittedly, at that time it was called “Parisian” or “Petersburg”) with a pleasant nutty flavor — it was made from cream, brought almost to the boil; from butter by boiling make melted butter, which is stored much longer;
- sour cream — thick fermented milk product from fermented cream, known in the eastern part of Europe under various names (in Hungary — teifel, in Germany — Schmand, in Tatarstan — Kaimak); the Russian name is explained by the fact that the pop-up cream was removed from the surface of the milk (“swept away”); Now, according to the state standard, sour cream is made of cream of 32% fat; depending on the technology, a product of different consistency is obtained — from 10 to 40% of fat;
- suzma common in Turkic countries; it is made from a katyk, which is salted, poured into a bag of cotton or gauze, suspended to drain and dry up — about a day; suzma eat just like that or fill it with soups; in addition, it can be diluted in a few days and turned into a kind of sour cream or milk, or, conversely, you can knock butter out of it or make cottage cheese by heating it in a water bath;
- serum — a by-product of cheese or curd production; when sour milk is heated, it disintegrates into white clots (curd or cheese — depending on the starter culture) and a turbid yellow-green liquid, which is called whey;
- cheese — the generic name of hundreds and thousands of different products; cheeses are hard and soft; brine and mold; rennet and fermented milk; young and mature; Russian cottage cheese and Italian ricotta, in fact, are also cheeses;
- Tarak — a kind of fermented milk drink of double fermentation (lactic acid and alcohol), which is common in Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Altai; The main peculiarity of taraka is that it is made from a mixture of different types of milk (sheep, cow, goat, camel, yachsky), which is heated, not boiling, then cooled, added with leaven from old taraka and left for several hours in a sealed container ;
- cottage cheese — the only traditional Russian type of cheese; in pre-Petrine times, cottage cheese was called the word “cheese”, but now the phrase “homemade cheese” (usually industrial cottage cheese a bit more crumbly and dry than cottage cheese); for the production of cottage cheese, the milk becomes sour by itself, due to the bacteria in the air, or it is added with leaven (clabber), and then slightly warmed up; as a result, the milk breaks up into white cottage cheese clots and whey; Russia even invented a recipe dry cheese: the finished curd was dried in an oven, pressed, tightly placed in clay pots and poured with melted butter on top (such product could be stored in the cellar for months);
- shubat — double fermentation drink (lactic acid and alcohol) from sour camel milk, which for a long time has been prepared by Kazakh nomadic cattle breeders; they put a leaven in a torsyk (a leather bag), pour in fresh camel’s milk and leave it for a day, and before serving it, mix it well; it turns out a salty thick drink — more fatty than koumiss (8% fat).
Are not dairy products (although they often pretend to be them):
- margarine, which consists of vegetable, dairy and animal fats (and very often goes without dairy), as well as dyes and flavors; so that margarine does not differ in its appearance from ordinary butter, a yellow dye is added to it; margarine is used mainly for frying and baking; margarine can be both hard and soft;
- spread — soft margarine-spread made from vegetable oil, replacing butter; As a rule, palm, coconut oil, as well as hydrogenated soybean and sunflower oil are used to prepare the spread;
- soy cheese tofu, which is made from soy milk — a traditional product in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam, Thailand.
When buying a pack of cottage cheese at the store, we fully rely on integrity.