The main requirement for baking dishes is its ability to withstand high temperatures for a long time.
It does not spoil itself and do not spoil the products.
The first material to meet these requirements was clay.
Cooks appreciated it in ancient times and continue to pay tribute to her until now.
AT ceramic pottery all useful substances are saved as much as possible.
Forms made of clay or porcelain are ideal for baking on low heat: they gradually and evenly warm up, retain heat for a long time.
Thanks to the porous, «breathing» surface of the forms, the cakes and muffins are baked in them and languished simultaneously. Dessert puddings and creams under the caramel crust for the whole company or portioned ones are perfect in them.
To serve the dish in ceramics is both practical and aesthetic. On the table it will look stylish and will stay warm for a long time.
The only thing clay loses to more modern materials is in durability. The very micropores that are so good at baking and “languishing” are penetrated by water, oil and fats, slowly destroying the dishes. And pottery can bang on the floor.
Immediately and smithereens.
Another old-timer in the oven is cast iron.
It is not inferior to ceramics in terms of the uniformity of warming up, which means that we can not be afraid that the middle will not be baked, and it will burn from below. This is a reliable and proven assistant. Good housewives in the kitchen are still working grandmothers cast iron pancakes, flat with low sides.
This “punt” is perfect for baking pizza bases and equally round cakes for cake.
Cast iron — the material is porous, but “cast iron” — for long years, the long-lived acquire an “natural” oil protective layer, which not only prevents the products from contacting with the metal and clogging the pores, but also enhances its non-stick properties. The modern cast-iron dishes, for the most part, are sold with a non-stick coating already applied to it.
Cast iron is not deformed during prolonged heating and durable.
Cast iron has a disadvantage — weight.
A set of baking dishes, several pans and pots, a pair of cauldrons made of this metal — and the mezzanine can not withstand gravity.
Utensils for baking from steel appeared relatively recently, but managed to gain popularity with simplicity, ease of handling, relative cheapness and variety of forms. The stainless steel does not change the taste of food, it is absolutely neutral to the effects of alkalis and acids. The high strength of steel to mechanical stress allows you to mix food with a regular spatula or spoon and cut with a regular knife.
Forms of become You can give almost any kind, make them separable, with a polished surface or matte.
By the way, it is believed that polished dishes are more hygienic due to the absence of scratches, and matte is more resistant to mechanical damage.
Even lighter forms from aluminum. They have their pros and cons.
On the one hand, they are softer and often deformed, including directly in the oven from high temperatures, and on the other, baking does not stick to aluminum.
In steel and aluminum forms, it is good to bake flat cookies, thin cakes, small baskets of sand or puff pastry … But if you cook large, lush, sweet dishes in them, you have to be ready for surprises.
And very closely monitor the temperature and its uniform distribution.
And then either burn or not baked.
The shape of metal dishes for baking can be very different.
Including detachable, when removable and «unbuttoned» sides are mounted on a flat or relief base.
They should not pour the batter — it simply flows out.
The classic version is a metal shape with a protruding upward cone.
This cone plays not only an aesthetic role — cupcakes and cakes are obtained with a hole in the middle, its main task is the access of hot air to the baking center.
For thin-walled steel and aluminum cookware this is especially important.
Non-stick coating is in fashion — it is easier and more convenient.
But many pastry chefs still recommend using stainless steel dishes without Teflon.
Allegedly, the heat in it is distributed more evenly, and baking is not too dry from the sides.
If you buy an extra baking sheet, choose a heavier one — it will provide a more uniform thermal conductivity — with sides and one flat edge: gentle baking is more convenient to remove from the open part of the sheet.
If the forms that are sold in stores are not suitable for your purposes in terms of size or configuration, you can make them yourself. The most suitable material for this is food foil. You need to choose the thickest — from 20 microns, thinner burns out.
By folding a few sheets, you can even give them their own profile.
The main thing is not to forget how to smear the resulting art object.
Glass dishes utensils outside, charming inside and comfortable in business.
Through the glass you can see the cooking process, and therefore control it. Glass is so chemically neutral that it will give odds even to surgical steel, so the taste of the product will be exactly as it was conceived: without foreign smells and flavors. Heat resistant glass is quite thick and has a low thermal conductivity.
Therefore, the dish will be cooked evenly and will not cool for a long time.
It should be borne in mind that it is quite difficult to clean the remains of burnt buns from the glass surface.
Therefore, many pastry chefs prefer to cover it with parchment or baking paper.
On sale you can find glassware for baking of all shapes and sizes: round, square and rectangular, with high and low, smooth and embossed sides … Unless we did not find transparent trays and separable shapes. Although the basis of a metal detachable form may well be made of glass.
It is very convenient that almost all glass lids attached to the same saucepans are designed for baking.
And in general, the culinary glass is ready for any trials: you can cook a dish in it, store it in the freezer, thaw it in the refrigerator, warm it in the microwave, and then safely wash the dish in the dishwasher.
The strength of the glass will not yield to steel, but it should be handled with care — dishes from high-quality heat-resistant glass are fragile and rather expensive.
In life there is a place for exploits, and in the kitchen — for experiment. Silicone molds are not only plastic surgery, but also a way to make a delicious cake or biscuit. The main plus of baking molds silicone — easy to use.
The hostesses prefer to lubricate it with butter at the first use and say that later it will not be necessary.
Manufacturers say: the oil does not need at all — just enough to sprinkle the form with water.
And to extract a cupcake or cake from the most intricate soft form (they are in the form of stars and flowers, hearts, there are also forms-duckling piglets), simply turn it inside out.
By the way, the products in it do not dry out from the sides, they turn out to be uniformly roasted.
Silicone also copes with the preparation of cookies made from dough with a high sugar content.
Meringue, for example, does not burn at all. Only for such sweets you will no longer need forms, but silicone mats.
As a rule, they have markings on which it is convenient to lay out cookies, meringues and cakes of the same size.
In the care of such dishes is extremely simple: wipe it with a sponge for washing dishes.
Some «not»: in any case, do not put on a fire or electric hob, do not cut the cake right in it and do not use a stiff brush and aggressive solutions for washing.
Silicone is a soft material, therefore it is better to fill the forms with dough, having previously installed them on a baking sheet or grid.
Otherwise, when “transporting” from the working surface into the oven, the batter can spill out or stain the loose sides, and the cherry from the center floats to the edge.
Disposable paper molds (glassine) or foil very cheap and convenient — no need to spend time and energy on their laundering: ate a bun — threw away a piece of paper.
In them, as a rule, prepare small muffins. They also often served. Paper forms are corrugated and even with a decorative edge and pattern.
Although manufacturers say that baking in paper can be done without oil, many pastry chefs still prefer to apply a thin layer of fat on the bottom and walls — it will be much easier to remove it from the finished cake.
Foil should be greased in any case.
Paper forms are often combined into blocks of 12, 24 or 36 pieces. They can be either single, resembling cardboard boxes for eggs, or consisting of individual molds and a stand with holes for them.
In this form, the cupcakes are conveniently and securely located on the baking sheet and on the table.