We are gaining extra weight: this is how nature works.
Today, on average, about 40% of the world’s population (figures vary depending on nationality and gender) tend to be overweight. This unpleasant inclination is inherent in us from nature. Through a chain of biochemical processes involving hormones (insulin, leptin and others), the excess calories consumed are deposited “in reserve” in the form of fat.
That is, the body is biochemically set to store excess calories: it once needed it in order to survive.
At the dawn of civilization, the caveman didn’t see the sweetness in his eyes, there was no excess fat caught in the hunt (since he didn’t stand in the pen or feed on feed), the problem of hypodynamia was absent as a class, and the average life expectancy was significantly less than forty years. Therefore, to the risks associated with overweight (hypertension, heart attacks, strokes, type 2 diabetes) people, as a rule, simply did not have time to live. Then the ability to store fat served a good service.
Thanks to some layer of accumulated fat, an individual had a chance to stretch “from the mammoth to the mammoth”. But those who did not know how to accumulate eaten as fat, almost did not have such a chance.
That is why today there are few such “naturally thin” people whom endocrinologists call the “happy phenotype”.
Our lifestyle has changed tremendously compared to Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons.
But the organism’s genetic habit of “putting it in reserve” has not disappeared anywhere: it is impossible to change it.
“Putting aside” the body helps insulin hormone. He, like a key, opens a cell for glucose, which entered the bloodstream in the process of splitting carbohydrates from the food we ate.
And it sends it in part to the energy needs of the body, and partially — converts it into body fat.
In most cases, the process of the appearance of excess weight is due to the three whales. One of the «whales» is a genetic propensity to «lay in reserve.»
But only single genetic and endocrine problems are almost impossible to cope with.
With rare exceptions, you need to make not so impossible efforts to prevent the genetic program from being realized.
Another of the «whales» overweight is the habit of unhealthy, over-feeding: in which there are not just too many calories, but especially those that come from «fast» carbohydrates (sweets) and starches (bread, potatoes, pasta, cereals) .
The third «whale» is a sedentary lifestyle.
Everyone knows about the harm of physical inactivity, but what’s so bad about the excess of “fast” carbohydrates?
The fact that they are very rapidly absorbed and cause a peak release of insulin into the blood.
Gradually, the pancreas, which produces insulin, «gets used» to react so vigorously to meals. And if at the same time the body has a genetically determined reduced sensitivity to insulin, then in order to keep the blood glucose level in normal, the pancreas is forced, as a Stakhanovist, to give out two or three insulin standards.
As a result of all biochemical chains, active processing of carbohydrates into fats, which are deposited in fat cells, is going on.
The number of fat cells is due to nature, and it changes little. But the fat cell can «stretch», increasing in volume. One of the theories explaining the mechanism of insulin resistance is the following: the more the fat cell increases in volume, the lower the concentration of insulin receptors per unit of its surface — and the lower its insulin sensitivity.
This means that the body needs more and more insulin to bring the sugar level back to normal. Increased insulin release increases appetite, a person eats even more, more fat is deposited, and the higher the weight, the more insulin sensitivity decreases.
And yet, the pathological circle is running.
The pancreas, accustomed to overloads, gives mega-doses of insulin even when a person does not eat — and skipping lunch causes sharp bouts of hunger with trembling hands and clouding of the head.
If a person has genetically determined defects in the synthesis and secretion of insulin, then over time with such “overtime work” the insulin apparatus of the pancreas begins to deplete — and hello, type II diabetes.
If the pancreas would not «process» in life — its internal reserves would be enough even with these breakdowns.
«Long» carbohydrates (starches contained in bread, potatoes, pasta, cereals, bananas) break down more slowly. But if the diet consists predominantly of them (and especially if it is not buckwheat with oatmeal, but white bread, mashed potatoes and semolina), the result will be approximately the same as eating pure sugar.
That is almost instantaneous suction, five seconds in the mouth, five hours in the stomach and a lifetime on the hips.
Read next week, the continuation of the topic «There is so that you do not get fat»