Bottled water and household filters. Questions and answers
Gastronom.ru: Are household water filters effective?
Rufina Mikhailova, Head of the Laboratory for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitary Protection of Water Bodies, Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences: They can be used for cleaning and after-treatment of tap water, especially when they clean water from gland.
True, universal of filters It is small, they are mainly calculated for a certain type of pollution
For example, coal — under organochlorine compounds.
However, the problem is that for effective cleaning it is necessary to have an accurate idea of the resource of this filter.
And watch how it is already developed, how much water has already passed through it. However, the consumer does not know the level of contamination of the water he filters. So even if the consumer is a pedantic person and a passport filter with his technical data studied, it will be difficult for him to “catch” the moment when the resource filter came to an end.
And with the next glass of water, we can get all those contaminants that have been filtered and accumulated on the surface after the absorption capacity of the load has ended.
Filters require a serious attitude.
Hydrogeologist Nadezhda Puchkova, Chief Specialist in Chemical Water Research: Often, for analysis, they bring water that has passed filtering and the same water, but before filtration.
Almost always, after the filter, the water is dirtier than before, sometimes the quality is 2-3 times worse than the original. It’s very simple: any filter cassette is very quickly picking up mechanical dirt, and faster than the filter manufacturers declare.
After 3-4 weeks the filter starts to work on pollution. Therefore, water filters should be changed not every 3-4 weeks, but with the frequency specified by the manufacturer.
After all, during this time the filter picks up dirt and accumulates them like a sponge.
And all the accumulated dirt in the filter in the process of «cleaning» enters the water.
Therefore, the effectiveness of household filters is questionable.
For example, the result of one of the analyzes. Before filtration, the hardness of the water was 12.5 mEq / L (and this is already considered very hard water), and after passing through the filter, it grew to 17 mEq / L. There is less iron in the water, but the sulfate content has doubled, as has the dry residue.
The calcium content was 8.5 mEq / l, and it became 12. Everything that the filter collected during the operation, he began to give into the water.
Meanwhile, the tape in this filter was changed only a month ago.
The filter is not always a panacea. I have no filter at home.
Because any filter will pick up dirt — it’s a matter of time.
Rufina Mikhailova: I buy bottled water.
I use packaged drinking water, that is, water that has guaranteed drinking quality. Most of them are extracted from underground water sources, some are produced from post-treatment purified tap water. They are divided into two categories: the first is drinking water, that is, it is epidemically and radiation-safe, harmless in chemical composition, and has favorable aromatic properties.
But to her more stringent requirements than to water from the tap.
For example, chlorination is not allowed, water can be disinfected only using physical methods.
Organochlorine compounds there are allowed 4 times less than in tap water.
And another category?
Rufina Mikhailova: These are waters of the highest category, to which another criterion is applied — physiological full value.
In previous studies conducted by our institute, optimal levels of mineral components in drinking water, which are biological essential, were substantiated. calcium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonates, iodine, fluorine. Subsequently, these studies gained recognition at the WHO level, and according to the data obtained, requirements for the waters of the highest category were formulated. For example, 40-60 mcg iodine per liter provide half the daily dose (if you use two liters of water a day for drinking and cooking).
A disadvantage iodine extremely dangerous.
Goiter is just the outward manifestation of a severe deficiency. iodine, as it is, everything is more complicated: the mental development of children is disturbed, and the physical also suffers, and the reproductive ability decreases.
That is, such water — an addition to the diet?
Rufina Mikhailova: With it, we can get 80-90 percent of the daily dose of essential trace elements (iodine, fluorine), but calcium and magnesium — up to 20 percent extra. And this is very important, since in recent years we have seen a very serious shortage of these elements. The consumer basket has changed, the technology of agriculture has changed.
Accordingly, the content of micro and macro elements in products has changed.
And how on the shelf in the store to find such water?
Rufina Mikhailova: As a rule, it says that it is water of the highest category, but you need to read the label.
Calcium content should be in the range of 25–80 mg per liter, magnesium — from 10 to 50 mg, potassium — 2–20 mg, total mineralization — 200–500 mg.
These levels are recommended in the domestic SanPiNe, and are also indicated in foreign standards.
There is still water for baby food, which is marked on the label — more stringent requirements are imposed on it.
And what is written on the water bottle of the first category?
Rufina Mikhailova: The source is indicated there — the number of the well and the territory where the well is located.
And a certificate of state registration, because all the water passes control.
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About this we asked a man who knows. See below.