As soon as people do not name brown browns: white and black granny, Berezovik, gray mushroom, black mushroom, common, kazarik.
Call it whatever you like, the main thing that was delicious!
Boletus — common Russian name for several species of fungi of the genus Leccinum or Obabok (Leccinum).
The habitat of boletus is a deciduous forest.
Red boleberry grows mainly in birch and mixed forests, in damp, wetlands under birches, as well as in gardens where there are birches.
In boletus a bit slippery, dull, brown shades of the cap. The flesh on the cut is not always colored. Other signs — brown scales on the leg, whitish tubes.
From aspen mushrooms (which are also several species of mushrooms from the genus Leccinum), boletus differs not only in the color of the cap, but also in its thinner stem and less dense cap pulp.
People call brows in different ways: grandma, grandma is white and black, birch, gray mushroom, black mushroom, small, kazarik.
All boletus — edible. Botanists distinguish several species of a brownberry (and they argue which of them is really a species, and which is a subspecies of one of the species):
- brown sueder(Leccinum scabrum) — the same classic brownish with a brown, slightly slippery cap;
- black sueder(Leccinum scabrum f. Melaneum, Leccinum scabrum melaneum), whose cap is darker, in some cases almost black;
- brown birch marsh, the same brown sueder white(Leccinum scabrum f. Chioneum, Leccinum holopus) — so named because it grows more often in swamps, and its cap is very light, white or whitish-brown;
- brownish pinking, the same oxidized(Leccinum scabrum f. Oxydabile, Leccinum oxydabile) — it is named this way because on the cut it acquires a coral shade in the cap and a yellowish gray in the stem, while many other types of boletus (for example, ordinary) do not change the color on the cut;
- brown sueder, the same grabber(Leccinum carpini, Leccinum pseudoscabrum) — it is known in the Caucasus and loves the company of a hornbeam (relative of birch), the color of its cap can be both light gray and brown, on the cut the flesh is colored pinkish-purple, then gray, to almost black;
- brown suede, the same hardish and poplar(Leccinum duriusculum) — its flesh is really a bit harder than that of other species, and on the break it blushes (in the cap and the upper part of the leg) or turns blue (in the lower part);
- brown birch, or blackening(Leccinum nigrescens), the cap of which is brown-yellow in color, and the flesh on the cut becomes wine-red or purple-brown, and then turns black; known in the warm regions of Europe, in Russia — in the Caucasus;
- brown suede ash gray(Leccinum leucophaeum), the name of which hints at the color of the tubular layer — the bottom of the cap, while the peel of the cap is brown, and the flesh on the cut turns pink (bluish at the base);
- boletus variegated, the same multicolored(Leccinum variicolor), which is quite different from other browns in appearance: its hat is very dark, almost black, variegated, with oblong-shaped yellowish burnings (although there are several varieties of brown-colored variegated with a hat of brick or orange color, also variegated), the leg at the base is blue green, on a cut getting a pinkish and greenish shade; These mushrooms grow under birches, poplars, oaks and spruces.
AT culinary and taste plan different species of brown boletus (as well as an orange boletus) almost no different from each other.
The pulp of boletus mushrooms very quickly becomes loose, so it is better to take boletus of young boletus and cook them together with other mushrooms, since they themselves do not have a pronounced taste.
Brownberry darkens with any treatment.
Boletus mushrooms can be fried and stewed (they are especially well combined with sour cream), you can pickle and pickle them, they make a good mushroom soup.
With browns you can cook pasta and risotto.
In different dishes, brownberries go well with buckwheat, pearl barley, rice, potatoes, cabbage, carrots, lentils, peas, sweet peppers.
Brownberries are great for filling in pies, pizza, rolls, homemade bread.
It is advisable to prepare the mushroom filling in advance, that is, lightly boil or fry the mushrooms before laying in the dough.
In the middle zone of Russia, brownberries are collected from June to October, but the main season starts from the end of July to the beginning of August.
In some areas they can be found until November.
Brownberries they do not hide in the grass, they are always in sight, they are easy to gather in spacious birch forests in groups and singly.
Brownberries can be found on the edge, on the lawns of birch and mixed forests.
In a mixed forest, boletus stands close to a birch.
It is not necessary to collect mushrooms near the highway: they absorb harmful substances from the exhaust gases of cars passing by.
The safe collection fee starts at a few hundred Mestras from highways.
The only mushroom with which an inexperienced mushroom picker can confuse a boletus is, — gall mushroom or colloquially false brownish (Tylopilus felleus).
He looks like an ordinary one — his hat is tubular at the bottom, brown on the outside, its leg is speckled. It is not poisonous, but if one such mushroom comes across, the whole dish will be spoiled, because it is very bitter, and this bitterness intensifies during cooking.
The first sign of a false brownish is the pinkish hue of the tubular part of the cap. In doubtful cases, you can touch her tongue (feeling so-so, but it is not dangerous).
For a precise definition of the type of specific fungus and its belonging to edible or poisonous mushrooms, refer to special directories.
At buying brownberries It is advisable to find out where they were collected.
It is better to purchase mushrooms in stationary markets, where products are checked for compliance with sanitary standards.
Avoid buying large mushrooms.
All for the same reason — the older the fungus, the higher the concentration of absorbed toxic substances in it.
Yes, and worms in young boletus, as a rule, smaller.
Do not buy already processed mushrooms “With hands”: dried, salted, pickled, etc.
Among other pieces, pale toadstools can be caught, it is better not to risk it.
Mushrooms refer to perishable products, they can not keep a long time.
Podberezovki need to be processed on the day of collection (or on the day of purchase).
First of all, mushrooms are cleared of debris, legs are cut off, and damaged areas are cut out. To prevent the mushrooms from turning black, use stainless steel knives.
Then they are either prepared immediately or stored for the future.
The main ways to preserve mushrooms — drying, frost, salting, pickling (and canning in sterilized, hermetically sealed glass jars). From dried mushrooms can be made mushroom powder.
You can also cook from minced meat and boiled mushroom mass (and then preserve) mushroom extract.
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