Beer is the oldest alcoholic drink known to mankind.
It is produced by fermenting the wort, usually from cereals, hops and water.
Since fermentation can occur in any organic product containing sugar or starch, it is possible that early beer drinks were brewed independently of each other in different foci of human civilization.
Homemade beer production was successfully established in Babylon already 8 thousand years ago. It was made from barley and spelled (spelled), to which were added fragrant herbs.
The wort was fermented, and after a few days, a slightly foaming, refreshing drink was obtained.
In 1700 BC in the Babylonian kingdom there was a set of laws regulating the production and sale of beer.
From Babylon, the art of brewing came to ancient Egypt, where beer has become a ritual drink. Then the production technology became widespread in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe.
In Bavaria, preserved vessels with remnants of fermented wheat wort, which date back to 800 BC. and are the oldest evidence of European brewing.
By the seventh century, beer was produced in many European monasteries. At the same time, the monks established an active trade in foaming braga, and sold it not only in retail (to numerous pilgrims), but also in bulk — to neighboring villages and cities. In the 8th century, under Charlemagne, hops were added to beer.
This innovation did not spread immediately: one of the main ingredients of the recipe was hop only from the XII century.
The final classic beer recipe was formed in 1516, when the famous law “The Commandment of Purity” (Reinheitsgebot) was adopted in Bavaria.
Since then, beer can only be brewed from barley, hops and pure water.
The European name of beer also appeared thanks to the Germans.
Most likely, it came from the old German peor or bior, which, in turn, was formed from the Latin word biber (drink).
The infinite variety of sorts of beer makes the general classification difficult, therefore, different countries have their own categories of this drink.
However, all beer can be conditionally classified according to the density of the wort (that is, the percentage of sugar content in the beer wort) and the method of fermentation.
The density of the wort is divided into four types of beer:
— simple — with a density of up to 7% (strength of 0.5-1.5%)
— draft — with a density of 7-11% (strength of 0.5-2.8%)
— whole — with a density of 11-16% (strength of 0.5-7%).
Over 90% of the production comes from this type.
— strong beer — with a density higher than 16% (strength of 5-12%)
Beer is classified and fermentation method — top or bottom.
El. During top fermentation, yeast accumulates on the surface of the wort, and the process proceeds relatively quickly and at a warm temperature (15-25 degrees).
This beer is called ale.
The most famous brands of ales are produced in England, Scotland, Ireland, Belgium and the USA, but their total production is small.
Lager. More than 90% of modern beers are lagers (actually, when we pronounce the word «beer», then most often we mean lager).
Bottom-fermenting yeast was bred in Bavaria in the 16th century and began to be widely used in industrial production from the middle of the 19th century.
They ferment the wort at a temperature of 7-12 degrees and during the process they settle to the bottom of the vat.
Brewing beer can mature for several months in a cold room, and it received its name from the German lagern — stored.
There are also intermediate varieties that combine elements of the production of top and bottom beers.
Belgian lambicas are usually used as a separate category — spontaneous fermentation beer, for the fermentation of which no culture yeast is added.
In beer, not filtered, pasteurized, and preserved, most bacteria and nutrients (phosphorus, calcium, iron, all B vitamins: thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine) are preserved, while in filtered and pasteurized they are killed by filtration and temperature processing.
Unfiltered (as well as unpasteurized) can be lager, ale, and lambic.
We also note that filtered pasteurized (or both at the same time) will be any beer that is sold in bottles / cans / other packages, as well as one that is bottled from kegs; non-filtered unpasteurized beer (that is, fresh, straight from the vats) can be drunk at breweries.
Unfiltered beer — the most delicious. There is such a tendency: if a beer shop offers unfiltered, three out of four visitors take it.
What is the reason for this?
Filtering method involves the removal of part of the products of fermentation, to accelerate the process of maturation and clarification of beer.
As a result, the drink, of course, becomes more transparent, but, first, its taste changes, and second, beer loses its beneficial properties, the lion’s share of which is contained in beer yeast.
In the twentieth century, most of the beer produced is being filtered (meaning both bottled and partially draft), while the brewers of olden times would never have thought that: they already knew that beer was a sedate drink and not rushing. .
Pasteurization method coined in 1864 by the French scientist Louis Pasteur.
Despite the fact that, thanks to pasteurization, beer practically did not retain the useful properties of the living, the brewers immediately appreciated the commercial value of the new idea: from now on, their products were stored longer, it could be bottled and transported over long distances. A new era of non-perishable beer has arrived.
Available as filtered pasteurized beer, and unfiltered pasteurized (also in bottles).
Preservation method used to make canned beer.
As for canned beer, today in Europe, the USA and other countries various preservatives are considered permissible: sulfur dioxide, ascorbic acid, betonite, benzoic acid, sulfuric acid and many others.
For comparison: unfiltered lives for several days, filtered for two weeks, pasteurized for up to three months, and canned for a year.
The only way to keep the beer alive in the package is to leave it to ferment in the bottle, as do the Belgian Trappist monks.
But this is a unique case.
One liter of unfiltered drink is ten times more useful than a liter of milk, and provides up to 40% of the daily human need for vitamins. According to some experts, unfiltered beer contributes to the destruction of kidney stones, reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cell rejuvenation.
It is not forbidden to drink with gastritis, ulcers and diabetes.
Supporters of beer therapy attributed to him painkillers and even disinfectant properties.
The remains of beer yeast in unfiltered beer contain a full complex of amino acids and vitamins of group B. And beer yeast, as you know, cures many diseases associated with metabolic disorders.
Malt particles have a beneficial effect on the digestive system, improve appetite, and hop particles soothe the nervous system and help relieve stress.
Barrel beer in any case can not be poured from a glass into a glass. It is also unacceptable to fill up the remnants of unfinished beer in freshly poured. This is not only bad form, but also harms the taste of the drink.
After all, it oxidizes faster and grows cloudy.
For the same reason, beer is not recommended to stir or shake.
What experts do not do, checking the quality of the drink. For example, blowing on foam — y.